Table of Contents
White, G.A. 1993. New crops research: Northeastern
region and national federal efforts. p. 68-81. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon
(eds.), New crops. Wiley, New York.
New Crops Research: Northeastern Region and National Federal Efforts
George A. White*
- STATE RESEARCH ON NEW CROPS--NORTHEASTERN REGION
- New Hampshire
- New Jersey
- FEDERAL RESEARCH ON NEW CROPS
- NORTHEASTERN REGION
- NORTH CENTRAL REGION
- North Dakota
- SOUTHERN REGION
- Puerto Rico
- WESTERN REGION
- NATIONAL SERVICES IN SUPPORT OF NEW CROPS RESEARCH
- Table 1
- Table 2
- Table 3
- Table 4
- Fig. 1
- Fig. 2
- Fig. 3
- Fig. 4
- Fig. 5
- Fig. 6
The objective of this paper is to provide a broad overview of new crops
research in the Northeastern Region of the United States as well as the
National federal efforts. This paper is mainly limited to species not yet
established commercially or recently commercialized on a small scale. This
limitation would exclude crops such as guar, hops, and sunflowers. An
electronic search of the CRIS projects that were active from October 1, 1989
onward plus a few non-CRIS projects are included in this review. An excellent
review of new industrial crops that covers a wide range of species and includes
germplasm status has been published by Thompson et al. (1992).
Most of the new crops efforts in the Northeast Region are directed toward the
introduction of exotic, ethnic vegetables, and crops or new cultivars of crops
that are grown in other regions of the United States (Table 1).
Hill and Maynard (1989) reported results of trials with 29 foreign and domestic
cultivars of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) where this normally
biennial species was grown as an annual through vernalization of seeds and
application of gibberellic acid to young plants. The potential for producing
commercial quality artichokes from annual culture in Connecticut appears
promising. Encouraging results were obtained with trials on witloof and
radicchio chicories (Cichorium intybus), Chinese cabbage (Brassica
pekinensis), and pak choi (B. chinensis) (Hill 1989, 1991).
Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) research has concentrated more on the
utility of the stems and the two main stem components than on production of the
crop. Some studies were conducted on the use of chopped stems as a sewage
sludge filler. The chopped stems have appeared promising as a bulking agent in
peat-based growth media (W.G. Pill pers. commun.). The outer-stem bast
(phloem) fibers when separated from the short-fibered inner core (xylem) can
command premium prices for use in specialty papers and other high quality
products. This fact has prompted research on uses for the core. The magnitude
of the broiler industry in the Delmarva Peninsula requires large quantities of
litter for which kenaf stem core might be suitable. Studies by Malone et al.
(1989) showed no difference on weight gain, feed efficiency, or mortality rate
of broilers raised on kenaf stem core as compared to pine sawdust. The quality
of used core is being evaluated for feed after enhancement with feed grains.
Fiber Kore, Inc. of Delaware is cooperating with the chicken litter studies in
Delaware and with Natural Fibers of Louisiana in the separation of kenaf bast
and core fibers and in identifying markets for them (Kugler 1991).
Since 1987, researchers have been studying the effects of crop rotation and
tillage practices of crops grown in rotation with potato. White lupine
(Lupinus albus) uniquely fits the niche as a soil improving plant and as
a source of protein rich seeds (Merrick 1990). According to G.A. Porter (pers.
commun.), white lupine is being grown experimentally for grain and for green
manure in comparison to grain (oats) and green manure (clover) in rotation with
potatoes. The main limiting factors for production in Maine are slow
maturation, limited seed availability and cost, and weed control. Progress in
selecting for determinate, early maturing types has been good.
The objectives of research on Easter cactus (Rhipsalidopsis gaertneri)
are to determine the environmental requirements for vegetative and reproductive
growth. Different light, temperature, and fertilizer regimes have been tested
to determine optimum environmental conditions for maximizing number of flowers
with minimum fertilizer and extended warm temperatures. Boyle and Stimart
(1989) have published a grower's guide based on their research results. A
reduction in the night temperature from 18° to 10°C for 6 to 8 weeks
before flowering increased the number of buds but did not affect flowering time
appreciably on 'Crimson Giant' Easter cactus (Boyle 1991). Fuel savings from
the temperature change would be beneficial to commercial growers.
Research on Witloof chicory (Cichorium intybus) is based on forcing
development of the floral axis and basal leaves with subsequent formation of
chicons. Corey et al. (1990) reported that marketing factors may limit the
crop more than production constraints. The use of weights on the crown at the
start of forcing resulted in improved yields and quality of chicons (Tan and
Corey 1990). The length:diameter ratios of the chicons decreased, a quality
indicator, with increasing weight.
Research on Cucurbita pepo hybrids comparing bush and vine types with
the hull-less seed trait (Fig. 1) has given promising results and could lead to
commercialization of the seeds as a snackseed (J.B. Loy pers. commun.). Seed
yields up to 2,400 kg/ha have been obtained from small-fruited, bush or
intermediate selections (Loy 1990).
The alternative floricultural crops project includes work on production
schedules for Lisianthus, Gerbera, Anigozanthos, and other
Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium frequently referred to as pyrethrum has
been known for many years as a source of the natural insecticide, pyrethrin.
Most of the world's production of pyrethrum is concentrated in Kenya. However,
pyrethrum could be produced successfully in New Jersey and other states
(Sievers and Lowman 1941). According to C.C. Still (pers. commun.), the
perennial plants have persisted for more than five years at the College of
Agriculture farm. The focus of the pyrethrum project includes selection for
increased cold hardiness, repellency trials, pyrethrin content, and vegetative
propagation, and production for on-farm use.
State projects that are funded through Hatch Act funds administered by the
Cooperative State Research Service (CSRS) of USDA are not directly discussed.
This compilation includes ARS research, projects supported through special CSRS
funds (such as Natural Latex, 1890, and Special Grants), and Cooperative
Agreements funded in part or wholly by ARS.
Research in this Region is quite limited with the exception of service
activities relative to new crops germplasm. Projects are summarized in Table 2.
A research program carried out at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center
on new species of florist/nursery crops includes species direct from the wild;
species commercialized in other countries but not in the United States;
improved form of existing cultivars such as from tall cut flowers to short
potted plants; new production technology to reduce cropping time; and
developing year-round forcing for species with unpredictable flowering (Roh and
Lawson 1990). Eucrosia, native to Ecuador and Peru, is an example of a
beautiful wild species under study (Fig. 2).
While research at Beltsville on Stokesia laevis as an oilseed seed
source of epoxy fatty acid has ceased, Campbell (1981) appraised its agronomic
potential and released four improved lines (Fig. 3).
Crotalaria juncea (sunn hemp) is under investigation as a potential new
annual source of paper pulp. This species, immune to root knot nematodes, is
being tested as a rotation crop with kenaf. At the Frederick Plant Disease
Laboratory, Leather and Forrence (1990) have found that the seeds of sunn hemp
contain a potent phytotoxin that inhibited growth of leafy spurge. These same
researchers have shown that artemisinin extracted from Artemisia annua,
a potential new crop for medicinal and pesticide purposes, inhibited root
induction in duckweed (CRIS progress report).
Most of the Federal new crops efforts in the region are concentrated on
industrial use oilseeds with minor efforts on Amaranthus and
Chenopodium for applications in the food industry. Semi-technical
updates on new sources of industrial oils including rapeseed, crambe, jojoba,
Lesquerella, meadowfoam, Cuphea, Vernonia, and chia
(Salvia hispanica) appear in INFORM, a news publication of the American
Oil Chemist's Society (Anon. 1991a). In reviewing the status of the industrial
feedstocks and products from high erucic acid oils extracted from crambe and
rapeseed, Van Dyne et al. (1990) covered aspects of production, products and
usage, seed composition, processing, economics, and oil outlook. Articles by
Vignolo and Naughton (1991) and by Browning (1991) suggest that efforts on the
one time new crop castor (Ricinus communis) should be revived because of
the diversity and approved uses of its seedoil and the high volume of
A number of special projects referred to as High Erucic Acid Development Effort
(HEADE) on Crambe and Brassica have been funded by USDA/CSRS and
were established to accelerate commercialization of these crops. There are six
of these projects in the North Central region. The major portion of direct
federal research on the chemistry, processing, and end-use products from
potential new crops with emphasis on oilseeds is conducted at the Northern
Regional Research Center, Peoria, Illinois (Table 3). There researchers
identified in the 1960s and 1970s many species having unique seed oils and
recently described some of the fatty acids and the crop status of the species
involved (Kleiman and Princen 1991). This Center also funds Cooperative
Agreements at other locations. Research results on sources of critical
materials and chemicals have been reported on the new oilseed crops
Limnanthes (Erhan and Kleiman 1990a,b), Lesquerella (Carlson et
al. 1990; Chaudhry et al. 1990), and jojoba (Abbott et al. 1990). A high
boiling point, non-dimer product from Limnanthes oil may become a unique
lubricant (Erhan and Kleiman 1990a).
Research at Urbana is concentrated on crambe meal for use in chicken rations
and glucosinolates in the meal as possible cancer deterrents.
The HEADE project at Ames consists of three parts: (1) Crambe breeding and
cultural practices. Efforts include evaluation of breeder lines for yield,
seed retention, and oil and fatty acid content. Cooperative efforts are
underway to obtain approval for use of the herbicide Treflan (R), (2) Improved
processing of crambe. Studies include evaluation of solvents for extracting
oil and glucosinolates, water extraction of glucosinolate from defatted meal,
and reverse osmosis to improve oil extraction, and (3) Economics of crambe and
rapeseed production. Studies are underway in cooperation with Idaho, Missouri,
and North Dakota to determine the areas where crambe, industrial rapeseed (high
in erucic acid), and canola can compete with other crops, the areas that are
the best economical sources of erucic acid, and the cost comparisons with
Research to reduce or eliminate extended postharvest seed dormancy in Cuphea
wrightii and C. laminuligera is underway at the Plant Introduction
Station, Ames. The best results on germination and seedling survival of these
sources of medium-chain-length fatty acids were obtained from excised seeds on
agar medium (Roath and Widrlechner 1988).
The HEADE project at Manhattan concentrates on selection, improvement of
cultural practices, and evaluation of meal quality for rapeseed. Variety
selection emphases are concentrated on winter hardiness, pest resistance, and
yield. Feeding studies to evaluate performance, carcass quality, and protein
supplement efficacy when feeding rapeseed meal are underway. Extrusion
technology as a possible means of deactivating the enzyme in rapeseed meal that
breaks glucosinolates into anti-nutritional compounds is also being evaluated.
Continuing research at Michigan State University on Black locust (Robinia
pseudoacacia), a fast-growing leguminous tree indicates excellent potential
for expanded production of this species because of a variety of uses (Barrett
et al. 1990). Black locust is an excellent forage crop under proper management
with high biomass yields. For black locust to become more important as a
lumber source in the United States, trees are needed with straight stems and
resistance to borer insects.
As part of a HEADE project at Columbia three facets of high erucic acid crop
development are under study: (1) Crop production--evaluating rapeseed cultivars
for forage adaptability, and seed yield as well as herbicidal, disease, and
date of planting studies, (2) Product development/marketing--nylon 1313 and
other products from high erucic acid oils are under evaluation, and (3)
Economics--production costs as well as the economic feasibility of biodiesel
fuel from rapeseed oil are under evaluation.
The HEADE project at Lincoln concentrates on the uses of high erucic acid oils
and includes the development of an engineering properties database.
The HEADE project at Fargo features research on cultural practices, product
development, and economics. Cooperation with National Sun Industries in
generating interest among farmers to grow crambe and to provide technical
assistance to the growers, has been successful. In 1990, most of the 890 ha of
commercially grown crambe was in North Dakota (Anon. 1991a). Of the 1,800 ha
contracted for 1991, about 1,560 ha were harvested and, the projected crop for
1992 is 8,100 ha (J.C. Gardner pers. commun.).
The Forest Products Laboratory at Madison, USDA/Forest Service, has a research
agreement with the Northern Regional Research center, USDA/ARS, Peoria,
Illinois to evaluate kenaf pulps as major fibrous furnish components for
linerboard and light weight coated papers.
Federal new crops research in the Southern Region covers a wide range of
species including fruits, vegetables, cereals, forages, oilseeds, and paper
pulp sources (Table 3). However, the most projects and greatest financial
support relate to kenaf as a source of paper pulp and forage.
Research at the Booneville South Central Family Farms Center, is underway on
Amaranthus both as a vegetable (greens) and a grain. United States
consumption exceeds 150 mt yearly and should increase in the future (Makus
1990a). Studies are underway on nutrition including aluminum accumulation
(Makus 1989) and response to nitrogen (Makus 1990b).
At least 16 subtropical and tropical fruits are grown commercially in Florida
and 20 additional fruit and nut species are grown as roadside and dooryard
crops (Knight 1988) with 9,246 ha in commercial production (Campbell 1988).
Carambola (Averrhoa carambola) is an example of a new fruit crop (Fig. 4)
with promise for increasing production (Knight 1989).
Recent interest in Cuphea spp. at Athens is directed toward agronomic
improvement as a seedoil source of short chain fatty acids but Cuphea
especially C. ignea has long been used on a limited basis as an
ornamental. Three superior selections of C. glutinosa were made on the
basis of overwintering and other desirable characteristics and `Lavender Lady'
was formally released (Jaworski and Phatak 1990a,b).
Pearl millet has excellent potential to become a new feed grain crop in Georgia
and elsewhere (W.W. Hanna pers. commun.). Hybrids grown at the Tifton Coastal
Plain Station (Fig. 5) have shown excellent productivity, drought tolerance,
and adaptability to pH levels of 4.5 to 8.0. Inbred parental lines for hybrid
production are being formally released by USDA/ARS.
A feasibility study for a 100,000 ton fiber separation and chemical pulp mill
is underway (Kugler 1991).
Kenaf research at Lane includes cultural aspects for both fiber production and
use as livestock feed. Harvest dates significantly affected harvest index
(Webber 1991a). Other studies compared the effects of locations and cultivars
on yield, leaf to stem ratios, and percentage of bast and core fibers (Ching et
al. 1991; Webber 1991b).
Studies at Mayaguez are underway on root and tuber crops such as tanier
(Xanthosoma sagittifolium) whose cormels are consumed much like
potatoes. Tanier hectarage has been steadily declining primarily because of
dry root-rot syndrome (Rivera et al. 1990). Diploid commercial cultivars are
susceptible to the syndrome but tetraploids and pentaploids are resistant.
Resistant hybrid tetraploids (Fig. 6) resulting from crosses between natural
tetraploids and colchicine-induced tetraploids of diploid cultivars have been
Kenaf is a suitable host for all four races of Meloidogyne incognita and
all four races can significantly reduce stem yields (J.A. Veech pers. commun.)
but some variability in sensitivity among kenaf cultivars was observed. At
College Station, a quick method for evaluating kenaf cultivars and breeding
lines for resistance to nematodes has been developed (Veech 1990).
Resistance to Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (root rot), has been explored
in Weslaco in kenaf and sunn hemp (Cook and Hickman 1990). Sunn hemp was
considerably more resistant than kenaf; but of the kenaf cultivars, 'Tainung
No. 1' appeared to be more resistant than 'Everglades 41'. According to Kugler
(1991), Texas researchers concluded that kenaf stem core is comparable to wood
shavings for poultry litter.
Guayule has been evaluated as a crop on dryland in south Texas, (Gonzalez
1988). The highest plant densities gave the highest yields. Harvesting the
whole plant (including roots) every three years was recommended rather than
harvesting tops and regrowth after one or two years. Nitrogen and potassium
increased dry weight of guayule plants but decreased the accumulation of resin
and rubber (Thomas and Hickman 1989). Nitrogen stress actually increased the
percentage of resin and rubber; however a marked reduction in biomass because
of N stress reduced total rubber production.
Federal research on new crops in the Region (Table 3) is concentrated on
industrial-use crops especially guayule, bladderpod (Lesquerella spp.),
and meadowfoam (Limnanthes spp.). Lesser efforts are being expended on
crambe/rapeseed, jojoba, Cuphea, and Vernonia.
Guayule. Numerous research papers have been published on plant
development, production, breeding, harvesting, and processing. Results of the
Second Guayule Uniform Yield trials indicate that three new test entries
performed well with AZ101 having the highest biomass and resin yields, and
Cal-6 and Cal-7 ranking first and second in rubber yield. Evaluations of
Arizona selections showed improvement over a standard variety as rubber content
and yields were consistently high and regeneration after harvests was good (Ray
et al. 1989; Dierig et al. 1992). Rubber content ranged from 4.5 to 7.5%.
Several of the tested selections are included in trials in other states.
In evaluation studies with 42 selected lines, Dierig et al. (1989a,b) found
that the variables of plant height, width, volume, and dry weight accounted for
85% of the rubber yield and that considerable variation occurred among some
lines for various characters. Even though guayule plants are drought tolerant,
they responded positively for biomass production with irrigation (Nakayama et
al. 1991). Studies of postharvest storage of guayule plant material prior to
processing for natural rubber showed that the degree of rubber degradation
varied among test entries (Dierig et al. 1991). Studies on guayule in
cooperation with the Botany Dept., Arizona State Univ., Tempe, include
photoperiodic induction of flowering (Backhaus and Higgins 1989) and the
effects of Morphactin and DCPTA on growth and rubber induction (Dierig and
Bladderpod. Of the various species of Lesquerella, L.
fendleri has long been considered as a good candidate for new crop status
as a seedoil source of hydroxy fatty acids. Interest in developing bladderpod
into a viable new crop for arid lands has recently been revitalized. Since
extensive wild populations exist over wide areas, genetic diversity should be
easily obtainable for use in breeding and crop improvement. Seed yields of
L. fendleri obtained from unselected bulked populations and improvement
after one selection cycle appear sufficient to justify major efforts on crop
development (Thompson et al. 1989). An excellent assessment of the industrial
potential of bladderpod that covers production, seed crushing and processing,
products, and economics has recently been published (Anon. 1991b).
Cuphea. Species of Cuphea have not been adaptable in
Phoenix, therefore research efforts have been shifted primarily to Iowa and
Oregon where Cuphea is more easily grown. Nevertheless, considerable
research has been conducted in Arizona. For example, Thompson et al. (1990)
reported variation for lauric acid (12:0) and capric acid (10:0) and seed
weight within self-pollinating accessions of C. lutea, C. tolucana,
and C. wrightii. Ronis et al. (1990) used isozymes to verify
interspecific hybrids of Cuphea.
In Moscow, rapeseed has been evaluated as a potential source of "biodiesel"
(methyl ester of rapeseed oil). Spring types are preferred in the northern
states because of severe winters (Auld et al. 1991). Adapted winter types with
good cold tolerance, low vernalization requirements, and pest resistance could
greatly enhance production in the Southeast. Engine endurance tests with
biodiesel gave equivalent performance and durability to diesel. Rapeseed crops
could produce vast quantities of vegetable oil for processing and use as
biodiesel, a renewable resource. Gareau et al. (1990), evaluated six species
of Brassica and one of Eruca to determine their adaptability to
the Northwest. Under Idaho conditions, B. hirta and B. juncea
showed the most promise. Considerable effort on improvement of B. hirta
through breeding is being expended under a HEADE project and economic
evaluations are underway as part of the project in cooperation with other state
Studies in Corvallis with Limnanthes alba have included reproductive
physiology (Jahns and Jollif 1990). Multiple bee visits to flowers will be
necessary to increase seed set per flower and hence increase seed yields in
Research on Cuphea include genetics of allozyme variation in C.
lanceolata (Knapp and Tagliani 1989a) and in C. laminuligera and
C. lutea (Krueger and Knapp 1990); seed dormancy in C.
laminuligera and C. lanceolata (Knapp and Tagliani 1989b; Knapp
1990); mating systems of C. laminuligera (Krueger and Knapp 1991) and
outcrossing in C. lanceolata (Knapp et al. 1991a); fatty acid mutants
(Knapp and Tagliani 1991) and oil diversity (Knapp et al. 1991b) of C.
viscosissima; and finally genetic parameters for oil yield in C.
lanceolata (Webb and Knapp 1991).
Several groups provide services in support of new crop researchers (Table 4).
The USDA's Plant Introduction Office (PIO) coordinates the international
exchange of new crop germplasm, facilitates movement of plant materials through
quarantine, and provides documentation of passport data through PI (plant
introduction) number assignments. This office frequently introduces new crop
germplasm and coordinates the quarantine and initial distribution in the United
States of new crop accessions collected abroad.
The Plant Exploration Office (PEO) plans, participates, and assists with field
collections in the United States and abroad. This office determines germplasm
gaps in collections and pinpoints areas where collecting is needed. Good
locality and use data are obtained routinely.
The Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) contains the national
database for new crop germplasm that resides in NPGS collections. The Database
Management Unit (DBMU) is responsible to maintain the integrity of data and
assist researchers in accessing data in support of their research. Crop
Advisory Committees (CAC) are important because of the technical knowledge
imparted relative to the needs of the crops involved. A New Crops CAC was
formed in 1990. The CAC activities are facilitated by the Research Leader of
the National Germplasm Resources Laboratory (NGRL).
Many services relative to new crops are provided by crop germplasm curators and
their staffs. Most of the germplasm of new crop species are maintained at the
Regional Plant Introduction Stations (RPIS) that are responsible for the
increase, evaluation, maintenance, distribution, and information documentation
for all new crop species assigned to their location. Staff members may also be
directly involved in research and plant exploration efforts such as efforts on
Cuphea at Ames, Iowa, the curatorial site. Germplasm collection sites in NPGS
for selected new crops are as follows:
Long term storage and associated research for new crops germplasm in the NPGS
is provided by the staff of the National Seed Storage Laboratory (NSSL) in
Colorado. The crop curators at the working collections are responsible for
submitting good quality seed to NSSL for storage.
|Use ||Site ||Crop|
|Industrial ||RPIS, Griffin, GA ||Kenaf, roselle, Stokes aster, sunn hemp|
| ||RPIS, Ames, IA ||Crambe, Cuphea, rapeseed, Vernonia, aromatic plants|
| ||RPIS, Pullman, WA ||Guayule, jojoba, Lesquerella, Limnanthes|
|Food/feed ||RPIS, Griffin, GA ||Pearl millet |
| ||Horticulture Research |
Station, Miami, FL
|Carambola, other fruits|
| ||RPIS, Ames, IA ||Amaranth, quinoa, herbs, spices|
| ||NCGR, Mayaguez, PR ||Tanier|
Other groups such as inspectors of the Animal Plant Health Inspection Service
(APHIS), USDA and State Department of Agriculture inspectors are involved in
the exchange of new crop germplasm. Chemists at the Northern Regional Research
Laboratory, Peoria, Illinois may run limited chemical analysis of new crop
seeds in support of production research.
The history and operation of NPGS has been described (White et al. 1989) and
various activities summarized in some detail (Janick 1989).
In the Northeastern Region, most of the State effort is devoted to assessing
the potential for production of exotic, specialty or ethnic vegetables, new
ornamentals, herbs, natural insecticides, and green manure crops. The
potential for commercialization of globe artichoke, hull-less seeded pumpkin,
lupine, and canola is being explored. Other research includes two possible
commercial applications for kenaf and clearance of chemicals for pest
The National federal effort is largely aimed at the production and end-uses of
industrial new crops especially oilseeds such as crambe, rapeseed, meadowfoam,
Cuphea, bladderpod, and jojoba; the natural rubber source guayule; and
fibers from kenaf. The research is heavily concentrated in Arizona, Florida
(subtropical fruits), Illinois, Iowa, Oklahoma, Oregon, and Texas. In addition
to in-house research by the USDA/ARS, demonstration/pilot processing runs, and
rather specific research projects are funded by the ARS and the CSRS of the
USDA. The CSRS has funded eight special HEADE projects to promote the
commercialization of the high erucic acid oilseeds of crambe and rape (mostly
winter type). The commercialization prospects for pearl millet as a feed grain
and the likely expansion of carambola acreage appear very favorable.
Supportive service activities are provided by curators of crop germplasm
collections, elements of the National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, and
others through the enlargement, documentation, and maintenance of new crop
- Abbott, T.P., W.A. Phillips, J.L. Swezey, G.A. Bennett, and R. Kleiman. 1990.
Large-scale detoxification of jojoba meal for cattle feed. Proc. Eighth Int.
Conf. on Jojoba and Its Uses. p. 1-13.
- Anon. 1991a. Work continues on new oils for industrial use. INFORM
- Anon. 1991b. Lesquerella as a source of hydroxy fatty acids for industrial
products. USDA/CSRS Growing Industrial Materials Series.
- Auld, D.L., C.L. Peterson, and R.A. Korus. 1991. Winter rapeseed as a
renewable fuel for the United States. Proc. Natl. Bioenergy Conf., Coeur
d'Alene, ID. p. 117-122.
- Backhaus, R.A. and R.R. Higgins. 1989. Photoperiodic induction of flowering
in guayule. HortScience 24:939-941.
- Barrett, R.P., T. Mebrahtu, and J.W. Hanover. 1990. Black locust: A
multi-purpose tree species for temperature climates, p. 278-283. In: J. Janick
and J.E. Simon (eds.). Advances in new crops. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
- Boyle, T.H. 1991. Temperature and photoperiodic regulation of flowering in
the cultivar `Crimson Giant' of Easter cactus. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.
- Boyle, T.H. and D.P. Stimart. 1989. A grower's guide to commercial production
of Easter cactus. Grower Talks 53(7):50-52.
- Browning, J. 1991. Outlook for U.S. castor production is positive. INFORM
- Campbell, C.W. 1988. Tropical fruits produced and marketed in Florida.
- Campbell, T.A. 1981. Agronomic potential of Stokes aster. 20:287-295. In:
E.H. Pryde, L.H. Princen, and K.D. Mukherjee (eds.). New sources of fats and
oils. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. Monograph 9. Champaign, IL.
- Carlson, K.D., R. Kleiman, L.R. Watkins, and W.H. Johnson, Jr. 1990.
Pilot-scale extrusion processing/solvent extraction of Lesquerella seed.
Proc. First Int. Conf. on New Ind. Crops and Prod.
- Chaudhry, A., R. Kleiman, and K.D. Carlson. 1990. Minor components of
Lesquerella fendleri seed oil. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 67:863-866.
- Ching, A., C.L. Webber III, and S.W. Neill. 1992. The effect of location and
cultivar on kenaf yield components. J. Ind. Crops and Prod. (in press).
- Cook, C.G. and M.V. Hickman. 1990. Response of kenaf and sunn crotalaria to
Phymatotrichopsis omnivora. El Guayulero 12(3-4):4-9.
- Corey, K.A., D.J. Marchant, and L.F. Whitney. 1990. Witloof chicory: a new
vegetable crop in the United States, p. 414-418. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon
(eds.). Advances in new crops. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
- Dierig, D.A. and R.A. Backhaus. 1990. Effects of Morphactin and DCPTA on stem
growth and bioinduction of rubber in guayule. HortScience 25:531-533.
- Dierig, D.A., D.T. Ray, and A.E. Thompson. 1989a. Variation of agronomic
characters among and between guayule lines. Euphytica 44:265-271.
- Dierig, D.A., A.E. Thompson, and D.T. Ray. 1989b. Relationship of
morphological variables to rubber production in guayule. Euphytica
- Dierig, D.A., A.E. Thompson, and D.T. Ray. 1991. Effects of field storage on
guayule rubber quantity and quality. Rubber Chem. Technol. 64:211-217.
- Dierig, D.A., A.E. Thompson, and D.T. Ray. 1992. Yield evaluation of new
Arizona guayule selections. Proc. First Int. Conf. on New Ind. Crops and
Prod., Oct. 8-12, 1990. Riverside,California (In press).
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*I thank those many researchers who contributed information and photographs and
reviewed the manuscript. A special note of appreciation goes to John Meyers
and Shawn Conrad for several Current Research Information Service (CRIS)
Table 1. State research on new crops, Northeastern Region.
|State ||Crop plant/group ||Nature of research|
|Connecticut ||Globe artichoke, witloof chicory, Chinese cabbage, pak choi, herbs ||Culture, quality, germplasm evaluation|
|Delaware ||Kenaf ||Enhancement of chicken litter, bulking agent in peat-based growth media|
|Maine ||Lupinus albus ||Selection, adaptability, culture|
|Maryland ||Duckweed ||Concentrate fresh duck weed into a dry storable animal feedstuff|
|Massachusetts ||Witloof chicory ||Yield and quality|
| ||Easter cactus ||Control of vegetative and reproductive development|
|New Hampshire ||Cucurbita pepo ||Breeding, culture; hull-less seed as a food snack|
| ||Alternative floriculture species ||Production schedules for various species|
|New Jersey ||Natural insecticides ||Assess production potential, emphasis on pyrethrum|
| ||Chicory, longan, lychee, passion fruit, etc. ||Clearance of chemicals/biologics for minor/special uses|
|New York ||Canola, lupine ||Adaptability of protein and oil crops|
Table 2. Federal research on new crops, Northeastern Region.
zGrant between the Pakistan Forest Institute and the National
Germplasm Resources Laboratory, USDA/ARS.
|State ||Crop plant/group ||Nature of research|
|Maryland, Beltsville ||Aeschynanthus, Anigozanthus, Eustoma, Lachenallia, Ornithogalum ||Collection, evaluation, genetics, management of new florist/nursery species|
| ||Guayule ||Break seed & seedling dormancy, develop super propagules|
|Maryland, Frederick ||Crotalaria juncea and Artemisia annua ||Biological control with natural product chemicals|
|Pakistan, Peshawarz ||Medicinal plants ||Propagation, culture, harvest, processing|
Table 3. Federal research on new crops in the North Central, Southern,
and Western Regions
zCooperative Agreement with USDA/ARS, Peoria, IL
|Location ||Crop plants/group ||Nature of research|
|NORTH CENTRAL |
|IA, Ames ||Cuphea and others ||Germplasm collection, evaluation, and enhancement|
| ||Crambe, rapeseedz ||Market development, production and utilization of high erucic acid oil|
| ||Cupheaz ||Evaluation of oil for support of health, reproduction, and longevity|
|IL, Peoria ||Jojoba ||Jojobin isolation|
| ||Cuphea, Lesquerella, Limnanthes, jojoba ||Chemically evaluate germplasm/breeding lines for oil and fatty acid content |
| ||Cuphea, Lesquerella, Limnanthes, jojoba ||New crop and product development for production of critical materials and chemicals|
| ||Guayule ||Infrastructural evaluation of the natural rubber|
|IL, Urbana ||Canola ||Weed control measures and herbicide residues in harvested crop|
| ||Crambe ||Meal and glucosinolates|
|MI, East Lansing ||Black locust ||Evaluation, improvement through breeding to expand usage|
|WI, Madison ||Kenaf ||Evaluate kenaf pulps for linerboard and coated papers|
|AR, Booneville ||Amaranth ||Yield, quality, economics of vegetable and grain types on hill-lands of the mid-south|
|AR, Pine Bluff ||Forage legumes, new/minor crops ||Evaluate for adaptability on acid soils, feed, and insect pests|
|FL, Miami ||Carambola, other tropical/subtropical fruits ||Selection & breeding|
|GA, Tifton ||Pearl millet ||Evaluation of landraces, germplasm enhancement|
| ||Cuphea ||Screen germplasm for desirable traits and adaptability|
|MS, Hattiesburg ||Guayule ||Develop products from plant by-products after rubber extraction|
|MS, Mississippi State ||Kenafy ||Agronomic & economic potential in the Midsouth|
|MS, Stoneville ||Kenaf ||Develop germplasm, improve cultural practices|
|OK, Lane ||Kenaf ||Production practices, managing nematodes & root diseases|
|OK, Stillwater ||Kenafx ||Organic matter & N digestibility of forage. Economics of adding forage to a wheat-livestock system|
|PR, Mayaguez ||Tanier (Xanthosoma) ||Improvement through breeding and management|
|TX, College Station ||Kenaf ||Control of nematodes|
| ||Kenafx ||Seed increases|
|TX, Edcouch ||Kenafw ||Cultural practices forproduction in South Texas|
|TX, McAllen ||Kenafv ||Demonstration for harvest system & new products|
|TX, Pecos ||Guayule ||Integrate agronomic, processing, and product development research|
|TX, Weslaco ||Kenaf ||Improved cultivars/cultural practices,evaluate pesticides to support registration|
| ||Guayule ||Production practices in South Texas|
|VA, Petersburg ||Lesquerella, Limnanthes, Vernonia ||Biochemical & nutritional studies|
|AZ, Phoenix ||Guayule, Lesquerella,Vernonia, others ||Germplasm improvement and cultural methods|
| ||Guayule ||Establishment, breeding, genetics, rubber quality & quantity|
| ||Lesquerella ||Assess commercialization prospects|
|AZ, Tempe ||Guayule ||Isolation & characterization of rubber transferase and associated genes|
|AZ, Tucson ||Guayuleu ||Establishment by direct seeding|
| ||Guayule, Lesquerella, Vernonia, othersw ||Germplasm and cultural development|
|CA, Albany ||Guayule, Hevea, Ficus ||Biotechnological production of natural rubber|
|CA, Pasadena ||Guayule ||Mechanism of bioregulation of plant responses|
|CA, Riverside ||Guayule ||Breeding and development|
|ID, Moscow ||Winter rapeseed (Brassica napus)t ||Energy source for agriculture production|
|NM, Las Cruces ||Crambe, Brassica, other alternative crops ||Introduction and breeding|
| ||Guayule ||Germplasm evaluation and seed increase|
|OR, Corvallis ||Cuphea spp.s ||Development as a source of medium chain triglycerides|
| ||Meadowfoamz ||Improvement through breeding and cultural practices|
yCooperative Agreement with USDA/ARS, Stoneville, MS
xCooperative Agreement with USDA/ARS, College Station, TX
wCooperative Agreement with USDA/ARS, Weslaco, TX
vCooperative Agreement with USDA/ARS, Washington, DC
uCooperative Agreement with USDA/ARS, Phoenix, AZ
tCooperative Agreement with USDA/ARS, Tifton, GA
sCooperative Agreement with USDA/ARS, Ames, IA
Table 4. National services for new crops research.
|Service group ||Location ||Activities|
|Plant Introduction Office, NGRL ||Beltsville, MD ||Introduction, quarantine, passport data documentation|
|Plant Exploration Office, NGRL ||Beltsville, MD ||Field collection of new crop germplasm, determine collection gaps|
|Database Management Unit, NGRL ||Beltsville, MD ||Maintain database information|
|Research Leader, NGRL ||Beltsville, MD ||Facilitate Crop Advisory Committees|
|Curators (Seed and Clonal) ||Various ||Increase, evaluate, maintain, distribute document information, collect germplasm|
|National Seed Storage Laboratory ||Ft. Collins, CO ||Long term seed storage|
Fig. 1. Cross-section of pumpkin (Curcurbita pepo) hybrid
showing abundance of hull-less seeds and
a productive field of hull-less
seeded pumpkins in New Hampshire (Photo by J.B. Loy, Univ. of New Hampshire).
Fig. 2. Eucrosia, an attractive new ornamental (Photo by M. Roh,
Fig. 3. Heads of Stokes aster (Stokesia laevis) with inflexed
bracts that contribute to seed retention.
||Fig. 4. Carambola (Averrhoa carambola) an expanding new fruit
crop in Florida (Photo by R.J. Knight, USDA/ARS).
Fig. 5. A field planting of a hybrid pearl millet (Pennisetum
glaucum), Tifton, Georgia (Photo by W.W. Hanna, USDA/ARS).
||Fig. 6. A robust, disease-free hybrid tetraploid of tanier
(Xanthosoma sagittifolium) and
cormels in Puerto Rico (Photo by A.
Last update September 5, 1997