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Bothriochloa pertusa (L.) A. Camus

Syn.: Amphilophis pertusa (L.) Stapf
Andropogon pertusus (L.) Willd.
Holcus pertusus L.
Hurricane grass, Seymour grass, Barbados sourgrass, Pitted bluestem, Comagceyana

Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.

  1. Uses
  2. Folk Medicine
  3. Chemistry
  4. Description
  5. Germplasm
  6. Distribution
  7. Ecology
  8. Cultivation
  9. Harvesting
  10. Yields and Economics
  11. Energy
  12. Biotic Factors
  13. References


Much valued as a good fodder grass, both for grazing and for stacking. Satisfactory for lawns, as it sends out numerous creeping shoots which root at the nodes. Although valued by some for pasture, others consider it a weed. In the Virgin Islands, e.g., some forms are difficult to eradicate and replace with better pasture grasses (Bogdan, 1977).

Folk Medicine

No data uncovered.


On a zero moisture basis the early-bloom grass (34.7% DM) contains 5.7% CP, 34.9% CF, 11.7% ash, 1.0% EE, 46.7% NFE (Venezuela); the mature grass (India) contains 3.9% CP, 37.9% CF, 10.0% ash, 2.3% EE, 45.9% NFE; the hay (94.3% DM) contains 5.7% CP, 34.9% CF, 11.7% ash, 1.0% EE, 46.7% NFE (India) (Gohl, 1981).


Stoloniferous or tufted perennial grass; culms ascending, branching, sometimes long running, rooting at the nodes, about 30 cm tall, much taller when cultivated; sheaths rounded; leaf-blades flat; panicle axis shorter than the lower branches, purplish, emitting an aromatic odor when crushed; racemes few to several, sparsely villous; first glumes of sessile spikelets always pitted; awn of sessile spikelet geniculate, 10–15 mm long; pedicellate spikelet about as long and broad as the sessile ones. 2n = 60. Fl. summer-fall.


Reported from the Africa, Mediterranean, and Near East Centers of Diversity, comagueyana or cvs thereof is reported to tolerate drought, grazing, and slope. Both apomictic and sexual reproduction have been observed in India, the latter predomina.tly. (2n = 40, 60)


Widely distributed in Old World Tropics, from Arabia and Tropical Africa to Southeast Asia, India, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia. Considered one of the better pasture grasses in the West Indies, Uganda and India. Sparingly introduced in southern United States on experimental basis.


Ranging from Warm Temperate Moist through Tropical Very Dry to Wet Forest Life Zones, comagueyana is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 5 to 40 dm (mean of 7 cases = 13.9), annual temperature of 17 to 27°C (mean of 7 cases = 23.3), and pH of 5.0 to 7.8 (mean of 7 cases = 6.9) (Duke, 1978,1979). Bogdan (1977) suggests that it occurs where rainfall is 500–900 mm, mainly on well drained soil. Rather common in disturbed as well as undisturbed areas, along roadsides, and in rather dry areas. Can withstand moderate periods of drought. Thrives on a wide range of soils in tropical climates. Does not tolerate frost.


Cultivated mainly in pasture mixtures. Also seeded along roadside embankments in warmer regions. Germinated quickly and established readily.


Mature plants stand repeated cutting, continuous grazing and trampling. Because of its ability to withstand being trampled and its habit to send out rooting shoots, it is used for lawns. Moisture-free grass contains 8.8% protein, 33% fiber, 46.1% N-free extract and 1.7% fat.

Yields and Economics

Said to be low yielding (Gohl, l981), but yield figures approach 15 MT DM/ha. An excellent pasture grass in many tropical areas of the world, as West Indies, East Africa, India, in the last where it is suggested for reseeding degraded grassland. Used to some extent in warmer parts of the United States along roadsides.


According to the phytomass files (Duke, 1981b), annual productivity ranges to 15 MT/ha.

Biotic Factors

Following fungi have been reported on this grass: Balansia sclerotica, Claviceps purpurea, Physoderma bothriochloae, Puccinia cesatii, P. duthiae, P. erythroaeensis, P. pusilla, Sphacelotheca tenuis, Ustilago bothrioch- loae, Uromyces andropogonis-annulati.


Complete list of references for Duke, Handbook of Energy Crops
Last update December 30, 1997