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N Use By Plants
Nitrate Assimilation
Ammonia Assimilation
Glu, Gln, Asn, Gly, Ser
Aminotransferases
Asp, Ala, GABA
Val, Leu, Ileu, Thr, Lys
Pro, Arg, Orn
Polyamines
Non-protein AAs
Alkaloids
Sulfate Assimilation
Cys, Met, AdoMet, ACC
His, Phe, Tyr, Tryp
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References
HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology

References, xanthophyll

Aronsson H, Schottler MA, Kelly AA, Sundqvist C, Dormann P, Karim S, Jarvis P. Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana affects pigment composition in the prolamellar body and impairs thylakoid membrane energization and photoprotection in leaves. Plant Physiol. 148: 580-592 (2008).

Audran C, Borel C, Frey A, Sotta B, Meyer C, Simonneau T, Marion-Poll A. Expression studies of the zeaxanthin epoxidase gene in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Plant Physiol. 118: 1021-1028 (1998).

Audran C, Liotenberg S, Gonneau M, North H, Frey A, Tap-Waksman K, Vartanian N, Marion-Poll A. Localisation and expression of zeaxanthin epoxidase mRNA in Arabidopsis in response to drought stress and during seed development. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 28: 1161-1173 (2001).

Baerr JN, Thomas JD, Taylor BG, Rodermel SR, Gray GR. Differential photosynthetic compensatory mechanisms exist in the immutans mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. Physiol. Plant. 124: 390-402 (2005).

Bailey S, Horton P, Walters RG. Acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana to the light environment: the relationship between photosynthetic function and chloroplast composition. Planta 218: 793-802 (2004).

Barker DH, Adams WW, Demmig-Adams B, Logan BA, Verhoeven AS, Smith SD. Nocturnally retained zeaxanthin does not remain engaged in a state primed for energy dissipation during the summer in two Yucca species growing in the Mojave Desert. Plant Cell Environ. 25: 95-103 (2002).

Baroli I, Do AD, Yamane T, Niyogi KK. Zeaxanthin accumulation in the absence of a functional xanthophyll cycle protects Chlamydomonas reinhardtii from photooxidative stress. Plant Cell 15: 992-1008 (2003).

Behnke K, Ehlting B, Teuber M, Bauerfeind M, Louis S, Hansch R, Polle A, Bohlmann J, Schnitzler JP. Transgenic, non-isoprene emitting poplars don't like it hot. Plant J. 51: 485-499 (2007).

Bischof K, Krabs G, Wiencke C, Hanelt D. Solar ultraviolet radiation affects the activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase and the composition of photosynthetic and xanthophyll cycle pigments in the intertidal green alga Ulva lactuca L. Planta 215: 502-509 (2002).

Bischof K, Peralta G, Krabs G, Van De Poll WH, Perez-Llorens JL, Breeman AM. Effects of solar UV-B radiation on canopy structure of Ulva communities from southern Spain. J. Exp. Bot. 53: 2411-2421 (2002).

Bouvier F, Keller Y, d'Harlingue A, Camara B. Xanthophyll biosynthesis: molecular and functional characterization of carotenoid hydroxylases from pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1391: 320-328 (1998).

Bravo LA, Saavedra-Mella FA, Vera F, Guerra A, Cavieres LA, Ivanov AG, Huner NP, Corcuera LJ. Effect of cold acclimation on the photosynthetic performance of two ecotypes of Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. J. Exp. Bot. 58: 3581-3590 (2007).

Burbidge A, Grieve TM, Jackson A, Thompson A, McCarty DR, Taylor IB. Characterization of the ABA-deficient tomato mutant notabilis and its relationship with maize Vp14. Plant J. 17: 427-431 (1999).

Chen LS, Cheng L. Both xanthophyll cycle-dependent thermal dissipation and the antioxidant system are up-regulated in grape (Vitis labrusca L. cv. Concord) leaves in response to N limitation. J. Exp. Bot. 54: 2165-2175 (2003).

Chen LS, Li P, Cheng L. Effects of high temperature coupled with high light on the balance between photooxidation and photoprotection in the sun-exposed peel of apple. Planta 228: 745-756 (2008).

Chen LS, Qi YP, Liu XH. Effects of aluminum on light energy utilization and photoprotective systems in citrus leaves. Ann. Bot. (Lond.) 96: 35-41 (2005).

Cheng L. Xanthophyll cycle pool size and composition in relation to the nitrogen content of apple leaves. J. Exp. Bot. 54: 385-393 (2003).

Chernys JT, Zeevaart JA. Characterization of the 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase gene family and the regulation of abscisic acid biosynthesis in avocado. Plant Physiol. 124: 343-354 (2000).

Close DC, Beadle CL, Hovenden MJ. Cold-induced photoinhibition and foliar pigment dynamics of Eucalyptus nitens seedlings during establishment. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 28: 1133-1141 (2001).

Cousins AB, Adam NR, Wall GW, Kimball BA, Pinter PJ, Ottman MJ, Leavitt SW, Webber AN. Photosystem II energy use, non-photochemical quenching and the xanthophyll cycle in Sorghum bicolor grown under drought and free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) conditions. Plant Cell Environ. 25: 1551-1559 (2002).

Cunningham FX Jr, Gantt E. Genes and enzymes of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 49: 557-583 (1998).

Cutler AJ, Krochko JE. Formation and breakdown of ABA. Trends Plant Sci. 4: 472-478 (1999).

Dall'osto L, Caffarri S, Bassi R. A mechanism of nonphotochemical energy dissipation, independent from PsbS, revealed by a conformational change in the antenna protein CP26. Plant Cell 17: 1217-1232 (2005).

Dall'Osto L, Cazzaniga S, North H, Marion-Poll A, Bassi R. The Arabidopsis aba4-1 mutant reveals a specific function for neoxanthin in protection against photooxidative stress. Plant Cell 19: 1048-1064 (2007).

Dall'osto L, Fiore A, Cazzaniga S, Giuliano G, Bassi R. Different roles of alpha- and beta-branch xanthophylls in photosystem assembly and photoprotection. J. Biol. Chem. 282: 35056-35068 (2007).

Dall'Osto L, Lico C, Alric J, Giuliano G, Havaux M, Bassi R. Lutein is needed for efficient chlorophyll triplet quenching in the major LHCII antenna complex of higher plants and effective photoprotection in vivo under strong light. BMC Plant Biol. 6: 32 (2006).

Davison PA, Hunter CN, Horton P. Overexpression of beta-carotene hydroxylase enhances stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. Nature 418: 203-206 (2002).

Demmig-Adams B, Adams WW 3rd. The xanthophyll cycle, protein turnover, and the high light tolerance of sun-acclimated leaves. Plant Physiol. 103: 1413-1420 (1993).

Diretto G, Welsch R, Tavazza R, Mourgues F, Pizzichini D, Beyer P, Giuliano G. Silencing of beta-carotene hydroxylase increases total carotenoid and beta-carotene levels in potato tubers. BMC Plant Biol. 7: 11 (2007).

Domonkos I, Malec P, Laczko-Dobos H, Sozer O, Klodawska K, Wada H, Strzalka K, Gombos Z. Phosphatidylglycerol depletion induces an increase in myxoxanthophyll biosynthetic activity in Synechocystis PCC6803 cells. Plant Cell Physiol. 50: 374-382 (2009).

Ebbert V, Adams WW, Mattoo AK, Sokolenko A, Demmig-Adams B. Up-regulation of a photosystem II core protein phosphatase inhibitor and sustained D1 phosphorylation in zeaxanthin-retaining, photoinhibited needles of overwintering Douglas fir. Plant Cell Environ. 28: 232-240 (2005).

Elizabeth Abreu M, Munne-Bosch S. Hyponastic leaf growth decreases the photoprotective demand, prevents damage to photosystem II and delays leaf senescence in Salvia broussonetii plants. Physiol. Plant. 134: 369-379 (2008).

Ensminger I, Foerster J, Hagen C, Braune W. Plasticity and acclimation to light reflected in temporal and spatial changes of small-scale macroalgal distribution in a stream. J. Exp. Bot. 56: 2047-2058 (2005).

Esteban R, Olano JM, Castresana J, Fernandez-Marin B, Hernandez A, Becerril JM, Garcia-Plazaola JI. Distribution and evolutionary trends of photoprotective isoprenoids (xanthophylls and tocopherols) within the plant kingdom. Physiol. Plant. 135: 379-389 (2009).

Forster B, Osmond CB, Pogson BJ. De novo synthesis and degradation of Lx and V cycle pigments during shade and sun acclimation in avocado leaves (P. americana). Plant Physiol. 149: 1179-1195 (2009).

Franco AC, Matsubara S, Orthen B. Photoinhibition, carotenoid composition and the co-regulation of photochemical and non-photochemical quenching in neotropical savanna trees. Tree Physiol. 27: 717-725 (2007).

Fraser PD, Pinto ME, Holloway DE, Bramley PM. Application of high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection to the metabolic profiling of plant isoprenoids. Plant J. 24: 551-558 (2000).

Frey A, Boutin JP, Sotta B, Mercier R, Marion-Poll A. Regulation of carotenoid and ABA accumulation during the development and germination of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia seeds. Planta 224: 622-632 (2006).

Galpaz N, Ronen G, Khalfa Z, Zamir D, Hirschberg J. A chromoplast-specific carotenoid biosynthesis pathway is revealed by cloning of the tomato white-flower locus. Plant Cell 18: 1947-1960 (2006).

Galpaz N, Wang Q, Menda N, Zamir D, Hirschberg J. Abscisic acid deficiency in the tomato mutant high-pigment 3 leading to increased plastid number and higher fruit lycopene content. Plant J. 53: 717-730 (2008).

Garcia-Plazaola J, Becerril JM. Seasonal changes in photosynthetic pigments and antioxidants in beech (Fagus sylvatica) in a Mediterranean climate: implications for tree decline diagnosis. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 28: 225-232 (2001).

Gevaert F, Creach A, Davoult D, Holl AC, Seuront L, Lemoine Y. Photo-inhibition and seasonal photosynthetic performance of the seaweed Laminaria saccharina during a simulated tidal cycle: chlorophyll fluorescence measurements and pigment analysis. Plant Cell Environ. 25: 859-872 (2002).

Ghassemian M, Lutes J, Chang HS, Lange I, Chen W, Zhu T, Wang X, Lange BM. Abscisic acid-induced modulation of metabolic and redox control pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. Phytochemistry 69: 2899-2911 (2008).

Gilmore AM, Matsubara S, Ball MC, Barker DH, Itoh S. Excitation energy flow at 77 K in the photosynthetic apparatus of overwintering evergreens. Plant Cell Environ. 26: 1021-1034 (2003).

Gisselsson A, Szilagyi A, Akerlund HE. Role of histidines in the binding of violaxanthin de-epoxidase to the thylakoid membrane as studied by site-directed mutagenesis. Physiol. Plant. 122: 337-343 (2004).

Golan T, Muller-Moule P, Niyogi KK. Photoprotection mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana acclimate to high light by increasing photosynthesis and specific antioxidants. Plant Cell Environ. 29: 879-887 (2006).

Gonzalez-Moro MB, Loureiro-Beldarrain I, Estavillo JM, Dunabeitia MK, Munoz-Rueda A, Gonzalez-Murua C. Effect of photorespiratory C2 acids on CO2 assimilation, PSII photochemistry and the xanthophyll cycle in maize. Photosynth. Res. 78: 161-173 (2003).

Goss R. Substrate specificity of the violaxanthin de-epoxidase of the primitive green alga Mantoniella squamata (Prasinophyceae). Planta 217: 801-812 (2003).

Gotz T, Sandmann G, Romer S. Expression of a bacterial carotene hydroxylase gene (crtZ) enhances UV tolerance in tobacco. Plant Mol. Biol. 50: 129-142 (2002).

Grace SC, Logan BA. Acclimation of foliar antioxidant systems to growth irradiance in three broad-leaved evergreen species. Plant Physiol. 112: 1631-1640 (1996).

Graham JE, Bryant DA. The biosynthetic pathway for myxol-2' fucoside (myxoxanthophyll) in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002. J. Bacteriol. 191: 3292-3300 (2009).

Gulias J, Flexas J, Abadia A, Madrano H. Photosynthetic responses to water deficit in six Mediterranean sclerophyll species: possible factors explaining the declining distribution of Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris, an endemic Balearic species. Tree Physiol. 22: 687-697 (2002).

Haberer K, Herbinger K, Alexou M, Tausz M, Rennenberg H. Antioxidative defence of old growth beech (Fagus sylvatica) under double ambient O3 concentrations in a free-air exposure system. Plant Biol. (Stuttg.) 9: 215-226 (2007).

Han Q, Shinohara K, Kakubari Y, Mukai Y. Photoprotective role of rhodoxanthin during cold acclimation in Cryptomeria japonica. Plant Cell Environ. 26: 715-723 (2003).

Hansen H, Grossmann K. Auxin-induced ethylene triggers abscisic acid biosynthesis and growth inhibition. Plant Physiol. 124: 1437-1448 (2000).

Harvaux M, Kloppstech K. The protective functions of carotenoid and flavonoid pigments against excess visible radiation at chilling temperature investigated in Arabidopsis npq and tt mutants. Planta 213: 953-966 (2001).

Havaux M, Bonfils JP, Lutz C, Niyogi KK. Photodamage of the photosynthetic apparatus and its dependence on the leaf developmental stage in the npq1 Arabidopsis mutant deficient in the xanthophyll cycle enzyme violaxanthin de-epoxidase. Plant Physiol. 124: 273-284 (2000).

Havaux M, Eymery F, Porfirova S, Rey P, Dormann P. Vitamin E protects against photoinhibition and photooxidative stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell 17: 3451-3469 (2005).

Havaux M, Lutz C, Grimm B. Chloroplast membrane photostability in chlP transgenic tobacco plants deficient in tocopherols. Plant Physiol. 132: 300-310 (2003).

Hendrickson L, Forster B, Furbank RT, Chow WS. Processes contributing to photoprotection of grapevine leaves illuminated at low temperature. Physiol. Plant. 121: 272-281 (2004).

Herbinger K, Then C, Haberer K, Alexou M, Lw M, Remele K, Rennenberg H, Matyssek R, Grill D, Wieser G, Tausz M. Gas exchange and antioxidative compounds in young beech trees under free-air ozone exposure and comparisons to adult trees. Plant Biol. (Stuttg.) 9: 288-297 (2007).

Heyde S, Jahns P. The kinetics of zeaxanthin formation is retarded by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. Plant Physiol. 117: 659-665 (1998).

Hikosaka K, Kato MC, Hirose T. Photosynthetic rates and partitioning of absorbed light energy in photoinhibited leaves. Physiol. Plant. 121: 699-708 (2004).

Hirschberg J. Carotenoid biosynthesis in flowering plants. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 4: 210-218 (2001).

Hormaetxe K, Esteban R, Becerril JM, Garcia-Plazaola JI. Dynamics of the alpha-tocopherol pool as affected by external (environmental) and internal (leaf age) factors in Buxus sempervirens leaves. Physiol. Plant. 125: 333-344 (2005).

Horton P, Ruban A. Molecular design of the photosystem II light-harvesting antenna: photosynthesis and photoprotection. J. Exp. Bot. 56: 365-373 (2005).

Isaacson T, Ronen G, Zamir D, Hirschberg J. Cloning of tangerine from tomato reveals a carotenoid isomerase essential for the production of beta-carotene and xanthophylls in plants. Plant Cell 14: 333-342 (2002).

Ivanov AG, Miskiewicz E, Clarke AK, Greenberg BM, Huner NP. Protection of photosystem II against UV-A and UV-B radiation in the cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum: the role of growth temperature and growth irradiance. Photochem. Photobiol. 72: 772-779 (2000).

Jiao DM, Ji BH. Photoinhibition in indica and japonica subspecies of rice (Oryza sativa) and their reciprocal F-1 hybrids. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 28: 299-306 (2001).

Jin E, Feth B, Melis A. A mutant of the green alga Dunaliella salina constitutively accumulates zeaxanthin under all growth conditions. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 81: 115-124 (2003).

Jin E, Yokthongwattana K, Polle JE, Melis A. Role of the reversible xanthophyll cycle in the photosystem II damage and repair cycle in Dunaliella salina. Plant Physiol. 132: 352-364 (2003).

Johnson MP, Davison PA, Ruban AV, Horton P. The xanthophyll cycle pool size controls the kinetics of non-photochemical quenching in Arabidopsis thaliana. FEBS Lett. 582: 262-266 (2008).

Johnson MP, Perez-Bueno ML, Zia A, Horton P, Ruban AV. The zeaxanthin-independent and zeaxanthin-dependent qE components of non-photochemical quenching involve common conformational changes within the Photosystem II antenna in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol. 149: 1061-1075 (2009).

Just BJ, Santos CA, Yandell BS, Simon PW. Major QTL for carrot color are positionally associated with carotenoid biosynthetic genes and interact epistatically in a domesticated x wild carrot cross. Theor. Appl. Genet. Aug 6 [Epub ahead of print] (2009).

Kalituho L, Grasses T, Graf M, Rech J, Jahns P. Characterization of a nonphotochemical quenching-deficient Arabidopsis mutant possessing an intact PsbS protein, xanthophyll cycle and lumen acidification. Planta 223: 532-541 (2006).

Kalituho L, Rech J, Jahns P. The roles of specific xanthophylls in light utilization. Planta 225: 423-439 (2007).

Kato M, Ikoma Y, Matsumoto H, Sugiura M, Hyodo H, Yano M. Accumulation of carotenoids and expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes during maturation in citrus fruit. Plant Physiol. 134: 824-837 (2004).

Keskitalo J, Bergquist G, Gardestrom P, Jansson S. A cellular timetable of autumn senescence. Plant Physiol. 139: 1635-1648 (2005).

Kim J, Smith JJ, Tian L, Dellapenna D. The evolution and function of carotenoid hydroxylases in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol. 50: 463-479 (2009).

Kirchgessner HD, Reichert K, Hauff K, Steinbrecher R, Schnitzler JP, Pfundel EE. Light and temperature, but not UV radiation, affect chlorophylls and carotenoids in Norway spruce needles (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Plant Cell Environ. 26: 1169-1179 (2003).

Kitao M, Qu L, Koike T, Tobita H, Maruyama Y. Increased susceptibility to photoinhibition in pre-existing needles experiencing low temperature at spring budbreak in Sakhalin spruce (Picea glehnii) seedlings. Physiol. Plant. 122: 226-232 (2004).

Kraft M, Kuglitsch R, Kwiatkowski J, Frank M, Grossmann K. Indole-3-acetic acid and auxin herbicides up-regulate 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase gene expression and abscisic acid accumulation in cleavers (Galium aparine): interaction with ethylene. J. Exp. Bot. 58: 1497-1503 (2007).

Krause GH, Schmude C, Garden H, Koroleva OY, Winter K. Effects of solar ultraviolet radiation on the potential efficiency of photosystem II in leaves of tropical plants. Plant Physiol. 121: 1349-1358 (1999).

Krol M, Ivanov AG, Jansson S, Kloppstech K, Huner NP. Greening under high light or cold temperature affects the level of xanthophyll-cycle pigments, early light-inducible proteins, and light-harvesting polypeptides in wild-type barley and the chlorina f2 mutant. Plant Physiol. 120: 193-204 (1999).

Krol M, Spangfort MD, Huner NP, Oquist G, Gustafsson P, Jansson S. Chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins, pigment conversions, and early light-induced proteins in a chlorophyll b-less barley mutant. Plant Physiol. 107: 873-883 (1995).

Kubien DS, Sage RF. Dynamic photo-inhibition and carbon gain in a C-4 and a C-3 grass native to high latitudes. Plant Cell Environ. 27: 1424-1435 (2004).

Kulheim C, Jansson S. What leads to reduced fitness in non-photochemical quenching mutants?. Physiol. Plant. 125: 202-211 (2005).

Latowski D, Burda K, Strzalka K. A mathematical model describing kinetics of conversion of violaxanthin to zeaxanthin via intermediate antheraxanthin by the xanthophyll cycle enzyme violaxanthin de-epoxidase. J. Theor. Biol. 206: 507-514 (2000).

Latowski D, Kruk J, Burda K, Skrzynecka-Jaskier M, Kostecka-Gugala A, Strzalka K. Kinetics of violaxanthin de-epoxidation by violaxanthin de-epoxidase, a xanthophyll cycle enzyme, is regulated by membrane fluidity in model lipid bilayers. Eur. J. Biochem. 269: 4656-4665 (2002).

Lavaud J, Rousseau B, Van Gorkom HJ, Etienne AL. Influence of the diadinoxanthin pool size on photoprotection in the marine planktonic diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Plant Physiol. 129: 1398-1406 (2002).

Ledford HK, Niyogi KK. Singlet oxygen and photo-oxidative stress management in plants and algae. Plant Cell Environ. 28: 1037-1045 (2005).

Lee AI, Thornber JP. Analysis of the pigment stoichiometry of pigment-protein complexes from barley (Hordeum vulgare). The xanthophyll cycle intermediates occur mainly in the light-harvesting complexes of photosystem I and photosystem II. Plant Physiol. 107: 565-574 (1995).

Leipner J, Stamp P, Fracheboud Y. Artificially increased ascorbate content affects zeaxanthin formation but not thermal energy dissipation or degradation of antioxidants during cold-induced photooxidative stress in maize leaves. Planta 210: 964-969 (2000).

Li P, Castagnoli S, Cheng L. Red 'Anjou' pear has a higher photoprotective capacity than green 'Anjou'. Physiol. Plant. 134: 486-498 (2008).

Liakopoulos G, Nikolopoulos D, Klouvatou A, Vekkos KA, Manetas Y, Karabourniotis G. The photoprotective role of epidermal anthocyanins and surface pubescence in young leaves of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). Ann. Bot. (Lond.) 98: 257-265 (2006).

Liu YJ, Norberg FE, Szilgyi A, De Paepe R, Akerlund HE, Rasmusson AG. The mitochondrial external NADPH dehydrogenase modulates the leaf NADPH/NADP+ ratio in transgenic Nicotiana sylvestris. Plant Cell Physiol. 49: 251-263 (2008).

Llusia J, Penuelas J, Asensio D, Munne-Bosch S. Airborne limonene confers limited thermotolerance to Quercus ilex. Physiol. Plant. 123: 40-48 (2005).

Llusia J, Penuelas J, Munne-Bosch S. Sustained accumulation of methyl salicylate alters antioxidant protection and reduces tolerance of holm oak to heat stress. Physiol. Plant. 124: 353-361 (2005).

Loggini B, Scartazza A, Brugnoli E, Navari-Izzo F. Antioxidative defense system, pigment composition, and photosynthetic efficiency in two wheat cultivars subjected to drought. Plant Physiol. 119: 1091-1100 (1999).

Lohr M, Wilhelm C. Algae displaying the diadinoxanthin cycle also possess the violaxanthin cycle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96: 8784-8789 (1999).

Lohr M, Wilhelm C. Xanthophyll synthesis in diatoms: quantification of putative intermediates and comparison of pigment conversion kinetics with rate constants derived from a model. Planta 212: 382-391 (2001).

Loik ME. The effect of cactus spines on light interception and photosystem II for three sympatric species of Opuntia from the Mojave Desert. Physiol. Plant. 134: 87-98 (2008).

Loreto F, Pinelli P, Manes F, Kollist H. Impact of ozone on monoterpene emissions and evidence for an isoprene-like antioxidant action of monoterpenes emitted by Quercus ilex leaves. Tree Physiol. 24: 361-367 (2004).

Lovelock CE, Robinson SA. Surface reflectance properties of Antarctic moss and their relationship to plant species, pigment composition and photosynthetic function. Plant Cell Environ. 25: 1239-1250 (2002).

Lu C, Lu Q, Zhang J, Kuang T. Characterization of photosynthetic pigment composition, photosystem II photochemistry and thermal energy dissipation during leaf senescence of wheat plants grown in the field. J. Exp. Bot. 52: 1805-1810 (2001).

Lu CM, Lu QT, Zhang JH, Zhang Q, Kuang TY. Xanthophyll cycle, light energy dissipation and photosystem II down-regulation in senescent leaves of wheat plants grown in the field. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 28: 1023-1030 (2001).

Luis JC, Martin R, Frias I, Valdes F. Enhanced carnosic acid levels in two rosemary accessions exposed to cold stress conditions. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55: 8062-8066 (2007).

Maass D, Arango J, Wst F, Beyer P, Welsch R. Carotenoid crystal formation in Arabidopsis and carrot roots caused by increased phytoene synthase protein levels. PLoS One 4: e6373 (2009).

Macko S, Wehner A, Jahns P. Comparison of violaxanthin de-epoxidation from the stroma and lumen sides of isolated thylakoid membranes from Arabidopsis: implications for the mechanism of de-epoxidation. Planta 216: 309-314 (2002).

Maiwald D, Dietzmann A, Jahns P, Pesaresi P, Joliot P, Joliot A, Levin JZ, Salamini F, Leister D. Knock-out of the genes coding for the Rieske protein and the ATP-synthase delta-subunit of Arabidopsis. Effects on photosynthesis, thylakoid protein composition, and nuclear chloroplast gene expression. Plant Physiol. 133: 191-202 (2003).

Masamoto K, Wada H, Kaneko T, Takaichi S. Identification of a gene required for cis-to-trans carotene isomerization in carotenogenesis of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Plant Cell Physiol. 42: 1398-1402 (2001).

Masojidek J, Torzillo G, Koblizek M, Kopecky J, Bernardini P, Sacchi A, Komenda J. Photoadaptation of two members of the Chlorophyta (Scenedesmus and Chlorella) in laboratory and outdoor cultures: changes in chlorophyll fluorescence quenching and the xanthophyll cycle. Planta 209: 126-135 (1999).

Matsubara S, Gilmore AM, Osmond CB. Diurnal and acclimatory responses of violaxanthin and lutein epoxide in the Australian mistletoe Amyema miquelii. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 28: 793-800 (2001).

Matsubara S, Morosinotto T, Bassi R, Christian AL, Fischer-Schliebs E, Luttge U, Orthen B, Franco AC, Scarano FR, Forster B, Pogson BJ, Osmond CB. Occurrence of the lutein-epoxide cycle in mistletoes of the Loranthaceae and Viscaceae. Planta 217: 868-879 (2003).

Matsubara S, Morosinotto T, Osmond CB, Bassi R. Short- and long-term operation of the lutein-epoxide cycle in light-harvesting antenna complexes. Plant Physiol. 144: 926-941 (2007).

Matsubara S, Naumann M, Martin R, Nichol C, Rascher U, Morosinotto T, Bassi R, Osmond B. Slowly reversible de-epoxidation of lutein-epoxide in deep shade leaves of a tropical tree legume may 'lock-in' lutein-based photoprotection during acclimation to strong light. J. Exp. Bot. 56: 461-468 (2005).

Minagawa J, Han KC, Dohmae N, Takio K, Inoue Y. Molecular characterization and gene expression of lhcb5 gene encoding CP26 in the light-harvesting complex II of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Mol. Biol. 46: 277-287 (2001).

Moco S, Capanoglu E, Tikunov Y, Bino RJ, Boyacioglu D, Hall RD, Vervoort J, De Vos RC. Tissue specialization at the metabolite level is perceived during the development of tomato fruit. J. Exp. Bot. 58: 4131-4146 (2007).

Montane MH, Tardy F, Kloppstech K, Havaux M. Differential control of xanthophylls and light-induced stress proteins, as opposed to light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b proteins, during photosynthetic acclimation of barley leaves to light irradiance. Plant Physiol. 118: 227-235 (1998).

Moro I, Dalla Vecchia F, La Rocca N, Navari-Izzo F, Quartacci MF, Di Baccio D, Rudiger W, Rascio N. Impaired carotenogenesis can affect organization and functionality of etioplast membranes. Physiol. Plant. 122: 123-132 (2004).

Muller-Moule P, Havaux M, Niyogi KK. Zeaxanthin deficiency enhances the high light sensitivity of an ascorbate-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 133: 748-760 (2003).

Munne-Bosch S, Alegre L. Plant aging increases oxidative stress in chloroplasts. Planta 214: 608-615 (2002).

Munne-Bosch S, Alegre L. Changes in carotenoids, tocopherols and diterpenes during drought and recovery, and the biological significance of chlorophyll loss in Rosmarinus officinalis plants. Planta 210: 925-931 (2000).

Munne-Bosch S, Penuelas J. Photo- and antioxidative protection, and a role for salicylic acid during drought and recovery in field-grown Phillyrea angustifolia plants. Planta 217: 758-766 (2003).

Munne-Bosch S, Penuelas J. Photo- and antioxidative protection during summer leaf senescence in Pistacia lentiscus L. grown under Mediterranean field conditions. Ann. Bot. (Lond.) 92: 385-391 (2003).

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