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N Use By Plants
Nitrate Assimilation
Ammonia Assimilation
Glu, Gln, Asn, Gly, Ser
Aminotransferases
Asp, Ala, GABA
Val, Leu, Ileu, Thr, Lys
Pro, Arg, Orn
Polyamines
Non-protein AAs
Alkaloids
Sulfate Assimilation
Cys, Met, AdoMet, ACC
His, Phe, Tyr, Tryp
Secondary Products
Onium Compounds
Enzymes
Methods
Simulation
References
HORT640 - Metabolic Plant Physiology

References, starch and synthesis

Aguera E, Ruano D, Cabello P, de la Haba P. Impact of atmospheric CO(2) on growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants. J. Plant Physiol. 163: 809-817 (2006).

Ainsworth EA, Rogers A, Leakey AD, Heady LE, Gibon Y, Stitt M, Schurr U. Does elevated atmospheric [CO2] alter diurnal C uptake and the balance of C and N metabolites in growing and fully expanded soybean leaves? J. Exp. Bot. 58: 579-591 (2007).

Ainsworth EA, Rogers A, Vodkin LO, Walter A, Schurr U. The effects of elevated CO2 on soybean gene expression. An analysis of growing and mature leaves. Plant Physiol. 142: 135-147 (2006).

Akhani H, Ghasemkhani M, Chuong SD, Edwards GE. Occurrence and forms of Kranz anatomy in photosynthetic organs and characterization of NAD-ME subtype C4 photosynthesis in Blepharis ciliaris (L.) B. L. Burtt (Acanthaceae). J. Exp. Bot. 59: 1755-1765 (2008).

Albrecht T, Koch A, Lode A, Greve B, Schneider-Mergener J, Steup M. Plastidic (Pho1-type) phosphorylase isoforms in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants: expression analysis and immunochemical characterization. Planta 213: 602-613 (2001).

Allen DK, Ohlrogge JB, Shachar-Hill Y. The role of light in soybean seed filling metabolism. Plant J. 58: 220-234 (2009).

Alonso AP, Goffman FD, Ohlrogge JB, Shachar-Hill Y. Carbon conversion efficiency and central metabolic fluxes in developing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) embryos. Plant J. 52: 296-308 (2007).

Alonso AP, Raymond P, Hernould M, Rondeau-Mouro C, de Graaf A, Chourey P, Lahaye M, Shachar-Hill Y, Rolin D, Dieuaide-Noubhani M. A metabolic flux analysis to study the role of sucrose synthase in the regulation of the carbon partitioning in central metabolism in maize root tips. Metab. Eng. 9: 419-432 (2007).

Alonso AP, Raymond P, Rolin D, Dieuaide-Noubhani M. Substrate cycles in the central metabolism of maize root tips under hypoxia. Phytochemistry 68: 2222-2231 (2007).

Alonso AP, Vigeolas H, Raymond P, Rolin D, Dieuaide-Noubhani M. A new substrate cycle in plants. Evidence for a high glucose-phosphate-to-glucose turnover from in vivo steady-state and pulse-labeling experiments with [13C]glucose and [14C]glucose. Plant Physiol. 138: 2220-2232 (2005).

Altmann T, Kossmann J. Photosynthesis and primary metabolism. Trends Plant Sci. 6: 93-94 (2001).

Amiard V, Mueh KE, Demmig-Adams B, Ebbert V, Turgeon R, Adams WW 3rd. Anatomical and photosynthetic acclimation to the light environment in species with differing mechanisms of phloem loading. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102: 12968-12973 (2005).

Asano T, Kunieda N, Omura Y, Ibe H, Kawasaki T, Takano M, Sato M, Furuhashi H, Mujin T, Takaiwa F, Wu Cy CY, Tada Y, Satozawa T, Sakamoto M, Shimada H. Rice SPK, a calmodulin-like domain protein kinase, is required for storage product accumulation during seed development: phosphorylation of sucrose synthase is a possible factor. Plant Cell 14: 619-628 (2002).

Babb VM, Haigler CH. Sucrose phosphate synthase activity rises in correlation with high-rate cellulose synthesis in three heterotrophic systems. Plant Physiol. 127: 1234-1242 (2001).

Baena-Gonzalez E, Rolland F, Thevelein JM, Sheen J. A central integrator of transcription networks in plant stress and energy signalling. Nature 448: 938-942 (2007).

Ball SG, Morell MK. From bacterial glycogen to starch: understanding the biogenesis of the plant starch granule. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 54: 207-233 (2003).

Balmer Y, Vensel WH, DuPont FM, Buchanan BB, Hurkman WJ. Proteome of amyloplasts isolated from developing wheat endosperm presents evidence of broad metabolic capability. J. Exp. Bot. 57: 1591-1602 (2006).

Banks FM, Driscoll SP, Parry MA, Lawlor DW, Knight JS, Gray JC, Paul MJ. Decrease in phosphoribulokinase activity by antisense RNA in transgenic tobacco. Relationship between photosynthesis, growth, and allocation at different nitrogen levels. Plant Physiol. 119: 1125-1136 (1999).

Barnes SA, Knight JS, Gray JC. Alteration of the amount of the chloroplast phosphate translocator in transgenic tobacco affects the distribution of assimilate between starch and sugar. Plant Physiol. 106: 1123-1129 (1994).

Baroja-Fernandez E, Munoz FJ, Akazawa T, Pozueta-Romero J. Reappraisal of the currently prevailing model of starch biosynthesis in photosynthetic tissues: a proposal involving the cytosolic production of ADP-glucose by sucrose synthase and occurrence of cyclic turnover of starch in the chloroplast. Plant Cell Physiol. 42: 1311-1320 (2001).

Baroja-Fernandez E, Munoz FJ, Akazawa T, Pozueta-Romero J. Reappraisal of the currently prevailing model of starch biosynthesis in photosynthetic tissues: a proposal involving the cytosolic production of ADP-glucose by sucrose synthase and occurrence of cyclic turnover of starch in the chloroplast. Plant Cell Physiol. 42: 1311-1320 (2001).

Baxter CJ, Carrari F, Bauke A, Overy S, Hill SA, Quick PW, Fernie AR, Sweetlove LJ. Fruit carbohydrate metabolism in an introgression line of tomato with increased fruit soluble solids. Plant Cell Physiol. 46: 425-437 (2005).

Baxter CJ, Foyer CH, Turner J, Rolfe SA, Quick WP. Elevated sucrose-phosphate synthase activity in transgenic tobacco sustains photosynthesis in older leaves and alters development. J. Exp. Bot. 54: 1813-1820 (2003).

Beatty MK, Rahman A, Cao H, Woodman W, Lee M, Myers AM, James MG. Purification and molecular genetic characterization of ZPU1, a pullulanase-type starch-debranching enzyme from maize. Plant Physiol. 119: 255-266 (1999).

Beaujean A, Ducrocq-Assaf C, Sangwan RS, Lilius G, Bulow L, Sangwan-Norreel BS. Engineering direct fructose production in processed potato tubers by expressing a bifunctional alpha-amylase/glucose isomerase gene complex. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 70: 9-16 (2000).

Beckles DM, Smith AM, ap Rees T. A cytosolic ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is a feature of graminaceous endosperms, but not of other starch-storing organs. Plant Physiol. 125: 818-827 (2001).

Bejar CM, Jin X, Ballicora MA, Preiss J. Molecular architecture of the glucose 1-phosphate site in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases. J. Biol. Chem. 281: 40473-40484 (2006).

Bental M, Pick U, Avron M, Degani H. The role of intracellular orthophosphate in triggering osmoregulation in the alga Dunaliella salina. Eur. J. Biochem. 188: 117-122 (1990).

Bertin N, Causse M, Brunel B, Tricon D, Genard M. Identification of growth processes involved in QTLs for tomato fruit size and composition. J. Exp. Bot. 60: 237-248 (2009).

Bhupinderpal-Singh, Nordgren A, Lofvenius MO, Hogberg MN, Mellander PE, Hogberg P. Tree root and soil heterotrophic respiration as revealed by girdling of boreal Scots pine forest: extending observations beyond the first year. Plant Cell Environ. 26: 1287-1296 (2003).

Blanc G, Lardet L, Martin A, Jacob JL, Carron MP. Differential carbohydrate metabolism conducts morphogenesis in embryogenic callus of Hevea brasiliensis (Mull. Arg.). J. Exp. Bot. 53: 1453-1462 (2002).

Blokhina O, Virolainen E, Fagerstedt KV. Antioxidants, oxidative damage and oxygen deprivation stress: a review. Ann. Bot. (Lond.) 91: 179-194 (2003).

Blumenrother MC, Low M, Matyssek R, Osswald W. Flux-based response of sucrose and starch in leaves of adult beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) under chronic free-air O3 fumigation. Plant Biol. (Stuttg). 9: 207-214 (2007).

Boehlein SK, Shaw JR, Stewart JD, Hannah LC. Characterization of an autonomously activated plant adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. Plant Physiol. 149: 318-326 (2009).

Bologa KL, Fernie AR, Leisse A, Ehlers Loureiro M, Geigenberger P. A bypass of sucrose synthase leads to low internal oxygen and impaired metabolic performance in growing potato tubers. Plant Physiol. 132: 2058-2072 (2003).

Borisjuk L, Rolletschek H, Walenta S, Panitz R, Wobus U, Weber H. Energy status and its control on embryogenesis of legumes: ATP distribution within Vicia faba embryos is developmentally regulated and correlated with photosynthetic capacity. Plant J. 36: 318-329 (2003).

Borisjuk L, Rolletschek H, Wobus U, Weber H. Differentiation of legume cotyledons as related to metabolic gradients and assimilate transport into seeds. J. Exp. Bot. 54: 503-512 (2003).

Borowitzka LJ, Kessly DS, Brown AD. The salt relations of Dunaliella. Further observations on glycerol production and its regulation. Arch. Microbiol. 113: 131-138 (1977).

Bowsher CG, Scrase-Field EF, Esposito S, Emes MJ, Tetlow IJ. Characterization of ADP-glucose transport across the cereal endosperm amyloplast envelope. J. Exp. Bot. 58: 1321-1332 (2007).

Boyer JS, Westgate ME. Grain yields with limited water. J. Exp. Bot. 55: 2385-2394 (2004).

Buleon A, Gallant DJ, Bouchet B, Mouille G, D'Hulst C, Kossmann J, Ball S. Starches from A to C. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model microbial system to investigate the biosynthesis of the plant amylopectin crystal. Plant Physiol. 115: 949-957 (1997).

Burger BT, Cross JM, Shaw JR, Caren JR, Greene TW, Okita TW, Hannah LC. Relative turnover numbers of maize endosperm and potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases in the absence and presence of 3-phosphoglyceric acid. Planta 217: 449-456 (2003).

Burkle L, Hibberd JM, Quick WP, Kuhn C, Hirner B, Frommer WB. The H+-sucrose cotransporter NtSUT1 is essential for sugar export from tobacco leaves. Plant Physiol. 118: 59-68 (1998).

Burrell MM. Starch: the need for improved quality or quantity-an overview. J. Exp. Bot. 54: 451-456 (2003).

Burton RA, Jenner H, Carrangis L, Fahy B, Fincher GB, Hylton C, Laurie DA, Parker M, Waite D, Van Wegen S, Verhoeven T, Denyer K. Starch granule initiation and growth are altered in barley mutants that lack isoamylase activity. Plant J. 31: 97-112 (2002).

Burton RA, Zhang XQ, Hrmova M, Fincher GB. A single limit dextrinase gene is expressed both in the developing endosperm and in germinated grains of barley. Plant Physiol. 119: 859-871 (1999).

Cairns AJ. Fructan biosynthesis in transgenic plants. J. Exp. Bot. 54: 549-567 (2003).

Carvalho LJ, de Souza CR, de Mattos Cascardo JC, Junior CB, Campos L. Identification and characterization of a novel cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) clone with high free sugar content and novel starch. Plant Mol. Biol. 56: 643-659 (2004).

Cedergreen N, Madsen TV. Light regulation of root and leaf NO3- uptake and reduction in the floating macrophyte Lemna minor. New Phytol. 161: 449-457 (2004).

Chen HJ, Qualls RG, Blank RR. Effect of soil flooding on photosynthesis, carbohydrate partitioning and nutrient uptake in the invasive exotic Lepidium latifolium. Aquat. Bot. 82: 250-268 (2005).

Chen LS, Nose A. Day-night changes of energy-rich compounds in crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species utilizing hexose and starch. Ann. Bot. (Lond.) 94: 449-455 (2004).

Chen LS, Qi YP, Smith BR, Liu XH. Aluminum-induced decrease in CO2 assimilation in citrus seedlings is unaccompanied by decreased activities of key enzymes involved in CO2 assimilation. Tree Physiol. 25: 317-324 (2005).

Chen S, Hajirezaei M, Bornke F. Differential expression of sucrose-phosphate synthase isoenzymes in tobacco reflects their functional specialization during dark-governed starch mobilization in source leaves. Plant Physiol. 139: 1163-1174 (2005).

Chen S, Hajirezaei M, Peisker M, Tschiersch H, Sonnewald U, Bornke F. Decreased sucrose-6-phosphate phosphatase level in transgenic tobacco inhibits photosynthesis, alters carbohydrate partitioning, and reduces growth. Planta 221: 479-492 (2005).

Cheng L, Zhou R, Reidel EJ, Sharkey TD, Dandekar AM. Antisense inhibition of sorbitol synthesis leads to up-regulation of starch synthesis without altering CO2 assimilation in apple leaves. Planta 220: 767-776 (2005).

Chia T, Thorneycroft D, Chapple A, Messerli G, Chen J, Zeeman SC, Smith SM, Smith AM. A cytosolic glucosyltransferase is required for conversion of starch to sucrose in Arabidopsis leaves at night. Plant J. 37: 853-863 (2004).

Chung T, Kim CS, Nguyen HN, Meeley RB, Larkins BA. The maize zmsmu2 gene encodes a putative RNA-splicing factor that affects protein synthesis and RNA processing during endosperm development. Plant Physiol. 144: 821-835 (2007).

Ciereszko I, Johansson H, Hurry V, Kleczkowski LA. Phosphate status affects the gene expression, protein content and enzymatic activity of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in wild-type and pho mutants of Arabidopsis. Planta 212: 598-605 (2001).

Clarke BR, Denyer K, Jenner CF, Smith AM. The relationship between the rate of starch synthesis, the adenosine 5'-diphosphoglucose concentration and the amylose content of starch in developing pea embryos. Planta 209: 324-329 (1999).

Clendennen SK, May GD. Differential gene expression in ripening banana fruit. Plant Physiol. 115: 463-469 (1997).

Coleman HD, Canam T, Kang KY, Ellis DD, Mansfield SD. Over-expression of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in hybrid poplar affects carbon allocation. J. Exp. Bot. 58: 4257-4268 (2007).

Coleman HD, Samuels AL, Guy RD, Mansfield SD. Perturbed lignification impacts tree growth in hybrid poplar - a function of sink strength, vascular integrity and photosynthetic assimilation. Plant Physiol. 148: 1229-1237 (2008).

Colleoni C, Dauvillee D, Mouille G, Buleon A, Gallant D, Bouchet B, Morell M, Samuel M, Delrue B, d'Hulst C, Bliard C, Nuzillard JM, Ball S. Genetic and biochemical evidence for the involvement of alpha-1,4 glucanotransferases in amylopectin synthesis. Plant Physiol. 120: 993-1004 (1999).

Colleoni C, Dauvillee D, Mouille G, Morell M, Samuel M, Slomiany MC, Lienard L, Wattebled F, d'Hulst C, Ball S. Biochemical characterization of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii alpha-1,4 glucanotransferase supports a direct function in amylopectin biosynthesis. Plant Physiol. 120: 1005-1014 (1999).

Corbesier L, Lejeune P, Bernier G. The role of carbohydrates in the induction of flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana: comparison between the wild type and a starchless mutant. Planta 206: 131-137 (1998).

Craig J, Lloyd JR, Tomlinson K, Barber L, Edwards A, Wang TL, Martin C, Hedley CL, Smith AM. Mutations in the gene encoding starch synthase II profoundly alter amylopectin structure in pea embryos. Plant Cell 10: 413-426 (1998).

Critchley JH, Zeeman SC, Takaha T, Smith AM, Smith SM. A critical role for disproportionating enzyme in starch breakdown is revealed by a knock-out mutation in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 26: 89-100 (2001).

Cross JM, Clancy M, Shaw JR, Boehlein SK, Greene TW, Schmidt RR, Okita TW, Hannah LC. A polymorphic motif in the small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase modulates interactions between the small and large subunits. Plant J. 41: 501-511 (2005).

Cross JM, Clancy M, Shaw JR, Greene TW, Schmidt RR, Okita TW, Hannah LC. Both subunits of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase are regulatory. Plant Physiol. 135: 137-144 (2004).

Cushman JC, Tillett RL, Wood JA, Branco JM, Schlauch KA. Large-scale mRNA expression profiling in the common ice plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, performing C3 photosynthesis and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). J. Exp. Bot. 59: 1875-1894 (2008).

da Mota RV, Cordenunsi BR, Do Nascimento JR, Purgatto E, Rosseto MR, Lajolo FM. Activity and expression of banana starch phosphorylases during fruit development and ripening. Planta 216: 325-333 (2002).

Dai N, Schaffer A, Petreikov M, Shahak Y, Giller Y, Ratner K, Levine A, Granot D. Overexpression of Arabidopsis hexokinase in tomato plants inhibits growth, reduces photosynthesis, and induces rapid senescence. Plant Cell 11: 1253-1266 (1999).

daSilva PMFR, Eastmond PJ, Hill LM, Smith AM, Rawsthorne S. Starch metabolism in developing embryos of oilseed rape. Planta 203: 480-487 (1997).

Datta R, Chamusco KC, Chourey PS. Starch biosynthesis during pollen maturation is associated with altered patterns of gene expression in maize. Plant Physiol. 130: 1645-1656 (2002).

Dauvillee D, Chochois V, Steup M, Haebel S, Eckermann N, Ritte G, Ral JP, Colleoni C, Hicks G, Wattebled F, Deschamps P, d'Hulst C, Lienard L, Cournac L, Putaux JL, Dupeyre D, Ball SG. Plastidial phosphorylase is required for normal starch synthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant J. 48: 274-285 (2006).

Dauvillee D, Colleoni C, Shaw E, Mouille G, D'Hulst C, Morell M, Samuel MS, Bouchet B, Gallant DJ, Sinskey A, Ball S. Novel, starch-like polysaccharides are synthesized by an unbound form of granule-bound starch synthase in glycogen-accumulating mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Physiol. 119: 321-330 (1999).

Dauwe R, Morreel K, Goeminne G, Gielen B, Rohde A, Van Beeumen J, Ralph J, Boudet AM, Kopka J, Rochange SF, Halpin C, Messens E, Boerjan W. Molecular phenotyping of lignin-modified tobacco reveals associated changes in cell-wall metabolism, primary metabolism, stress metabolism and photorespiration. Plant J. 52: 263-285 (2007).

Davies EJ, Tetlow IJ, Bowsher CG, Emes MJ. Molecular and biochemical characterization of cytosolic phosphoglucomutase in wheat endosperm (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Axona). J. Exp. Bot. 54: 1351-1360 (2003).

De Groot CC, Van Den Boogaard R, Marcelis LF, Harbinson J, Lambers H. Contrasting effects of N and P deprivation on the regulation of photosynthesis in tomato plants in relation to feedback limitation. J. Exp. Bot. 54: 1957-1967 (2003).

Dejardin A, Rochat C, Maugenest S, Boutin JP. Purification, characterization and physiological role of sucrose synthase in the pea seed coat (Pisum sativum L.). Planta 201: 128-137 (1997).

Delatte T, Trevisan M, Parker ML, Zeeman SC. Arabidopsis mutants Atisa1 and Atisa2 have identical phenotypes and lack the same multimeric isoamylase, which influences the branch point distribution of amylopectin during starch synthesis. Plant J. 41: 815-830 (2005).

Delvalle D, Dumez S, Wattebled F, Roldan I, Planchot V, Berbezy P, Colonna P, Vyas D, Chatterjee M, Ball S, Merida A, D'Hulst C. Soluble starch synthase I: a major determinant for the synthesis of amylopectin in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Plant J. 43: 398-412 (2005).

Dian W, Jiang H, Wu P. Evolution and expression analysis of starch synthase III and IV in rice. J. Exp. Bot. 56: 623-632 (2005).

Diaz-Vivancos P, Clemente-Moreno MJ, Rubio M, Olmos E, Garcia JA, Martinez-Gomez P, Hernandez JA. Alteration in the chloroplastic metabolism leads to ROS accumulation in pea plants in response to plum pox virus. J. Exp. Bot. 59: 2147-2160 (2008).

Dieuaide-Noubhani M, Raffard G, Canioni P, Pradet A, Raymond P. Quantification of compartmented metabolic fluxes in maize root tips using isotope distribution from 13C- or 14C-labeled glucose. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 13147-13159 (1995).

Dinges JR, Colleoni C, James MG, Myers AM. Mutational analysis of the pullulanase-type debranching enzyme of maize indicates multiple functions in starch metabolism. Plant Cell 15: 666-680 (2003).

Dodd AN, Griffiths H, Taybi T, Cushman JC, Borland AM. Integrating diel starch metabolism with the circadian and environmental regulation of Crassulacean acid metabolism in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. Planta 216: 789-797 (2003).

Dominguez F, Cejudo FJ. Patterns of starchy endosperm acidification and protease gene expression in wheat grains following germination. Plant Physiol. 119: 81-88 (1999).

Drennan PM, Nobel PS. Responses of CAM species to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Plant Cell Environ. 23: 767-781 (2000).

Druart N, Johansson A, Baba K, Schrader J, Sjodin A, Bhalerao RR, Resman L, Trygg J, Moritz T, Bhalerao RP. Environmental and hormonal regulation of the activity-dormancy cycle in the cambial meristem involves stage-specific modulation of transcriptional and metabolic networks. Plant J. 50: 557-573 (2007).

Duan M, Sun SS. Profiling the expression of genes controlling rice grain quality. Plant Mol. Biol. 59: 165-178 (2005).

Dumez S, Wattebled F, Dauvillee D, Delvalle D, Planchot V, Ball SG, D'Hulst C. Mutants of Arabidopsis lacking starch branching enzyme II substitute plastidial starch synthesis by cytoplasmic maltose accumulation. Plant Cell 18: 2694-2709 (2006).

Easlon HM, Richards JH. Photosynthesis affects following night leaf conductance in Vicia faba. Plant Cell Environ. 32: 58-63 (2009).

Eastmond PJ, Rawsthorne S. Coordinate changes in carbon partitioning and plastidial metabolism during the development of oilseed rape embryos. Plant Physiol. 122: 767-774 (2000).

Edwards A, Fulton DC, Hylton CM, Jobling SA, Gidley M, Rossner U, Martin C, Smith AM. A combined reduction in activity of starch synthases II and III of potato has novel effects on the starch of tubers. Plant J. 17: 251-261 (1999).

Eichelmann H, Laisk A. CO2 uptake and electron transport rates in wild-type and a starchless mutant of Nicotiana sylvestris. The role and regulation of starch synthesis at saturating CO2 concentrations. Plant Physiol. 106: 679-687 (1994).

Ekman A, Hayden DM, Dehesh K, Bulow L, Stymne S. Carbon partitioning between oil and carbohydrates in developing oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds. J. Exp. Bot. 59: 4247-4257 (2008).

El-Sharkawy MA. Cassava biology and physiology. Plant Mol. Biol. 56: 481-501 (2004).

EL-Sharkawy MA. Cassava biology and physiology. Plant Mol. Biol. 53: 621-641 (2003).

Emes MJ, Bowsher CG, Hedley C, Burrell MM, Scrase-Field ES, Tetlow IJ. Starch synthesis and carbon partitioning in developing endosperm. J. Exp. Bot. 54: 569-575 (2003).

Emes MJ, Neuhaus HE. Metabolism and transport in non-photosynthetic plastids. J. Exp. Bot. 48: 1995-2005 (1997).

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Farre EM, Bachmann A, Willmitzer L, Trethewey RN. Acceleration of potato tuber sprouting by the expression of a bacterial pyrophosphatase. Nat. Biotechnol. 19: 268-272 (2001).

Farre EM, Geigenberger P, Willmitzer L, Trethewey RN. A possible role for pyrophosphate in the coordination of cytosolic and plastidial carbon metabolism within the potato tuber. Plant Physiol. 123: 681-688 (2000).

Farre EM, Tiessen A, Roessner U, Geigenberger P, Trethewey RN, Willmitzer L. Analysis of the compartmentation of glycolytic intermediates, nucleotides, sugars, organic acids, amino acids, and sugar alcohols in potato tubers using a nonaqueous fractionation method. Plant Physiol. 127: 685-700 (2001).

Fernie AR, Roessner U, Geigenberger P. The sucrose analog palatinose leads to a stimulation of sucrose degradation and starch synthesis when supplied to discs of growing potato tubers. Plant Physiol. 125: 1967-1977 (2001).

Fernie AR, Roessner U, Trethewey RN, Willmitzer L. The contribution of plastidial phosphoglucomutase to the control of starch synthesis within the potato tuber. Planta 213: 418-426 (2001).

Fernie AR, Tauberger E, Lytovchenko A, Roessner U, Willmitzer L, Trethewey RN. Antisense repression of cytosolic phosphoglucomutase in potato (Solanum tuberosum) results in severe growth retardation, reduction in tuber number and altered carbon metabolism. Planta 214: 510-520 (2002).

Fernie AR, Tiessen A, Stitt M, Willmitzer L, Geigenberger P. Altered metabolic fluxes result from shifts in metabolite levels in sucrose phosphorylase-expressing potato tubers. Plant Cell Environ. 25: 1219-1232 (2002).

Ferrario-Mery S, Hodges M, Hirel B, Foyer CH. Photorespiration-dependent increases in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase in transformed tobacco plants deficient in ferredoxin-dependent glutamine-alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase. Planta 214: 877-886 (2002).

Ferrario-Mery S, Thibaud MC, Betsche T, Valadier MH, Foyer CH. Modulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and of nitrate reductase, in untransformed and transformed Nicotiana plumbaginifolia during CO2 enrichment of plants grown in pots and in hydroponic culture. Planta 202: 510-521 (1997).

Florchinger M, Zimmermann M, Traub M, Neuhaus HE, Mohlmann T. Adenosine stimulates anabolic metabolism in developing castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) cotyledons. Planta 223: 340-348 (2006).

Flugge UI. Phosphate translocators in plastids. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 50: 27-45 (1999).

Fox SR, Rawsthorne S, Hills MJ. Fatty acid synthesis in pea root plastids is inhibited by the action of long-chain acyl-coenzyme As on metabolite transporters. Plant Physiol. 126: 1259-1265 (2001).

Foyer CH, Lescure JC, Lefebvre C, Morot-Gaudry JF, Vincentz M, Vaucheret H. Adaptations of photosynthetic electron transport, carbon assimilation, and carbon partitioning in transgenic Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plants to changes in nitrate reductase activity. Plant Physiol. 104: 171-178 (1994).

Foyer CH, Valadier MH, Migge A, Becker TW. Drought-induced effects on nitrate reductase activity and mRNA and on the coordination of nitrogen and carbon metabolism in maize leaves. Plant Physiol. 117: 283-292 (1998).

Frances H, Bligh J, Larkin PD, Roach PS, Jones CA, Fu H, Park WD. Use of alternate splice sites in granule-bound starch synthase mRNA from low-amylose rice varieties. Plant Mol. Biol. 38: 407-415 (1998).

Fritzius T, Aeschbacher R, Wiemken A, Wingler A. Induction of ApL3 expression by trehalose complements the starch-deficient Arabidopsis mutant adg2-1 lacking ApL1, the large subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Plant Physiol. 126: 883-889 (2001).

Fujita N, Taira T. A 56-kDa protein is a novel granule-bound starch synthase existing in the pericarps, aleurone layers, and embryos of immature seed in diploid wheat (Triticum monococcum L.). Planta 207: 125-132 (1998).

Fujita N, Toyosawa Y, Utsumi Y, Higuchi T, Hanashiro I, Ikegami A, Akuzawa S, Yoshida M, Mori A, Inomata K, Itoh R, Miyao A, Hirochika H, Satoh H, Nakamura Y. Characterization of pullulanase (PUL)-deficient mutants of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and the function of PUL on starch biosynthesis in the developing rice endosperm. J. Exp. Bot. 60: 1009-1023 (2009).

Fulgosi H, Soll J, de Faria Maraschin S, Korthout HA, Wang M, Testerink C. 14-3-3 proteins and plant development. Plant Mol. Biol. 50: 1019-1029 (2002).

Fulton DC, Edwards A, Pilling E, Robinson HL, Fahy B, Seale R, Kato L, Donald AM, Geigenberger P, Martin C, Smith AM. Role of granule-bound starch synthase in determination of amylopectin structure and starch granule morphology in potato. J. Biol. Chem. 277: 10834-10841 (2002).

Gallardo K, Le Signor C, Vandekerckhove J, Thompson RD, Burstin J. Proteomics of Medicago truncatula seed development establishes the time frame of diverse metabolic processes related to reserve accumulation. Plant Physiol. 133: 664-682 (2003).

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