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Bhardwaj, H.L., M. Rangappa, and A.A. Hamama. 1999. Chickpea, faba bean, lupin, mungbean, and pigeonpea: potential new crops for the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States. p. 202–. In: J. Janick (ed.), Perspectives on new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.


Chickpea, Faba Bean, Lupin, Mungbean, and Pigeonpea: Potential New Crops for the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States

Harbans L. Bhardwaj, Muddappa Rangappa, and Anwar A. Hamama*


  1. CHICKPEA
  2. FABA BEAN
  3. LUPIN
  4. MUNGBEAN
  5. PIGEONPEA
  6. CONCLUSIONS
  7. REFERENCES

The New Crops Program of Virginia State University, established in 1991, has evaluated the production feasibility of a wide array of leguminous crops including chickpea, faba bean, mungbean, and pigeonpea under Virginia's agro-climatic conditions (Bhardwaj et al. 1996). Such crops could provide alternatives to farmers in Virginia and adjoining Mid-Atlantic States. These farmers, in general, rely on a limited number of crops and are interested in diversification. The close proximity of these farmers to the Washington, DC metropolitan area where the international community is familiar with these crops can provide a market for these crops.

The evaluations of chickpea, pigeonpea, and mungbean were conducted as replicated field experiments. The evaluations of faba bean and lupin germplasm were conducted by planting single row plots of each accession. All field experiments were conducted at the Randolph Farm of Virginia State University which is located approximately 37° 15' N and 077° 30.8' W.

CHICKPEA

Cicer arietinum L., an ancient crop, was probably grown in Turkey 7400 years ago. Most chickpea world production is in India. The mature chickpea seed are used as a dry bean and green immature seed are used as a vegetable. In chickpea, two seed types exist: kabuli or garbanzo (large seeded) and desi (small seeded). Chickpea is an annual plant generally requiring a cool season. However, it can be planted in spring in Virginia. The chickpea plant is 20–100 cm tall. Chickpea has a deep tap root and is considered drought tolerant.

The results of chickpea evaluations are presented in Table 1. The mean yield of desi type chickpea lines (1153 kg/ha) was significantly higher than that of kabuli type lines (719 kg/ha). However, the larger kabuli-type chickpea are known to be sold at premier prices at the green-immature stage for use as a vegetable. Recent research has indicated that 'Sanford' and 'Dwelly' (kabuli type cultivars) and 'Myles' (desi type cultivar) are adaptable and high yielding in Virginia.

Table 1. Performance of desiand kabuli chickpea lines during 1993 when planted in March and harvested in July.

Line

Type

Seed yield
(kg/ha)

Aztec

Desi

1400

ICC 4948

Desi

1360

ICC 10136

Desi

1343

C 235

Desi

1183

ICC 4

Desi

1097

NEC 1163

Desi

1003

Garnet

Desi

964

PI 12074

Desi

876

   Mean

 

1153

   LSD(.05)

 

453

UC 8532

Kabuli

1083

UC 85150

Kabuli

1047

UC 27

Kabuli

996

UC 15

Kabuli

929

UC8624

Kabuli

925

UC85183

Kabuli

811

UC5

Kabuli

620

SR20I

Kabuli

576

UC8554

Kabuli

559

Surutato 77

Kabuli

431

Surutato

Kabuli

349

UC8536

Kabuli

307

   Mean

 

719

   LSD(.05)

 

432

FABA BEAN

Vicia faba L. is known to be an efficient nitrogen fixer and there is interest among farmers to grow faba bean as a vegetable crop to market the green beans in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The faba bean is generally a cool season crop but can be planted in Virginia during spring. A diverse germplasm collection of faba bean germplasm has been evaluated for production potential. This collection has included lines from ICARDA (Syria); US collection at Pullman, Washington; and lines from Dr. Al Slinkard (University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada). The seedling and foliar diseases have been a major hindrance in faba bean production under Virginia conditions. Although our results with faba bean have been disappointing, two cultivars, 'Fatima' and 'Chinese', seem to have promise under Virginia conditions.

LUPIN

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is making a comeback in the southern United States due to its high potential in both conventional and sustainable production systems. Since 1997, white lupin is being evaluated in Virginia as a winter grain legume crop and as a green manure crop to meet nitrogen needs of following summer crops. Lupin can potentially fix 150 to 200 kg/ha nitrogen for the use of a succeeding crop (Reeves et al. 1990). It has been estimated that if lupin replaced a quarter of wheat area in the southeastern United States, 95000 t of nitrogen fertilizer worth $50 to $60 million per year could be saved (Reeves et al. 1990).

The fiber-rich lupin flour is also gaining attention as a food source for humans. The nutritionally-rich lupin flour, due to its high content of potassium, calcium, carotenes, and protein, can be used to enrich pastas, cake mixes, cereals, and other baked goods (Birk 1993). Sweet lupin have been observed to be good sources of macro- and micro-nutrients, protein, fat, carbohydrates, minerals, and vitamins (Yanez 1996) for normal growth and development of humans and other animal species. Sweet lupin seeds lack trypsin inhibitors and can make a valuable contribution to dairy, beef, swine, sheep, and poultry rations at the farm since high temperature cooking to eliminate anti-nutritional factors is not needed. A survey of historic weather data for Virginia (1961–1990), has indicated that successful lupin production in Virginia and the mid-Atlantic region would get a boost from development of cold-tolerant lines.

During fall of 1997, a lupin collection of 284 lines representing four species: Lupinus albus, L. angustifolius, L. luteus, and L. mutabilis, were evaluated for cold tolerance and 148 selected lines are now being evaluated for yield potential and cold-tolerance. Greenhouse experiments conducted during 1997 have indicated that nodulation effectiveness was dependent upon specific Bradyrhizobium strain and lupin genotype combination. Lupin yields have been unstable in the mid-Atlantic region. Field experiments conducted at Orange, Virginia during 1995–96 season resulted in an average yield of 3480 kg/ha as compared to average Alabama yields of less than 1740 kg/ha (Noffsinger et al. 1998).

A comparison of lupin seed produced in Maine to that produced in Virginia (Bhardwaj et al. 1999) indicated that growing environment significantly affected total sugar, amino acids, oil, fatty acids, and minerals but not protein. The results indicated that lupin seed has potential as human food. The lupin seed produced in Virginia contained approximately 3 percent ash, 37 percent protein, 5 percent oil, and 7 percent sugar.

MUNGBEAN

Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. is native to northeastern India–Burma (Myanmar) region of Asia. It is primarily grown in Asia, Africa, South and North America, and Australia principally for its protein-rich edible seeds. Mungbean is also known as mung, moong, mungo, green gram, golden gram, chop-suey bean. Human consumption of mungbean is as dry seeds or sprouts. Mungbean also has potential as a green manure and a forage crop. In the United States, mungbean was grown as early as 1835. Oklahoma, California, and Texas account for about 90% of the US production (about 50,000 ha). Approximately, 7 to 9 million kg of mungbean are consumed annually in the United States and nearly 75% of this amount is imported (Oplinger et al. 1990). Enhanced domestic production can help offset annual imports of approximately 5 to 7 million kg of mungbean.

Seven mungbean lines were evaluated during 1993 and 1994 with encouraging results (Table 2). Mungbean planted in June or July, may be a suitable crop in rotation with winter wheat. The soybean farm machinery and production technology are generally suitable for mungbean culture. During 1997 and 1998, mungbean was commercially produced in Virginia on a small scale for sale to businesses intending to use it as a dry pulse.

Table 2. Seed yield of mungbean during 1993 and 1994 (Source: Bhardwaj et al. 1997).

Entry

Yield (kg/ha)

1993

1994

May 17–Oct. 21

June 16–Oct. 21

July 2–Nov. 29

June 9–Oct. 6z

July 7–Oct. 6

LSB 8205

2068

1799

1955

1257

1242

Johnston's California

1758

1651

2794

2516

888

TexSprout

1535

1338

2362

3025

936

Lincoln

1522

1737

2663

1892

927

Berken

1516

1265

3263

991

805

M 12

1382

1469

2621

1885

669

OK 12

1189

1065

3287

2258

848

   Mean

1567

1475

2706

1975

902

   LSD(.05)

414

298

745

1118

ns

zPlanting and harvest dates.

PIGEONPEA

Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. is one of the oldest food crops of the world and ranks 5th among edible legumes in worldwide production. Pigeonpea is known to produce more nitrogen per unit of plant biomass than most other legumes and can nodulate in most soils. It is also considered to be tolerant to low and high temperatures. There is considerable variation among pigeonpea germplasm for crop duration which may vary from 80 to 250 days. Pigeonpea is useful as a grain, forage, or a green manure crop. Both determinate and indeterminate genotypes of pigeonpea exist. Seeds of pigeonpea are known to be a rich source of proteins, carbohydrates, and minerals with protein content generally varying from 18 to 25% and as high as 32%. Pigeonpea seeds are rich in sulfur-containing amino acids, methionine, and cystine. In pigeonpea, green immature seeds are used as a vegetable and could be important income for small and part-time farmers. A market for green pods of pigeonpea is known to exist in the Washington, DC metropolitan area.

During 1992, the seed yield varied from 349 to 2042 kg/ha with a mean yield of 1236 kg/ha (Table 3). The mean yield of determinate lines (1751 kg/ha) was significantly superior to that of indeterminate lines (721 kg/ha). A mean green bean yield of 13589 kg/ha was obtained in this study. These results indicated that pigeonpea can be successfully grown in Virginia and the mid-Atlantic region. During 1998 summer, a Virginia farmer grew about 0.4 ha of pigeonpea for marketing of green pods.

Table 3. Performance of pigeonpea during 1992 in Virginia.

Line

Type

Seed yield (kg/ha)

No. seeds/pod

Seed wt. (g/100)

Harvest index (%)

Green bean

Yield (kg/ha)

Moisture (%)

Shelling (%)

VXPP-I1

Determinate

1925

4.9

11.8

20.2

13184

78.9

52.1

VXPP-I2

Determinate

2042

4.2

9.2

28.4

15696

82.4

53.7

VXPP-I3

Determinate

1287

3.7

7.6

21.9

11888

84.1

55.1

VXPP-I4

Indeterminate

597

4.3

10.0

8.9

--

--

--

VXPP-I5

Indeterminate

1217

4.5

9.6

11.7

--

--

--

VXPP-I6

Indeterminate

349

4.4

10.2

4.3

--

--

--

Mean

1236

4.3

9.8

15.9

13589

81.8

53.6

LSD (.05)

494

0.5

1.4

5.1

ns

ns

ns

CONCLUSIONS

Based on these results, we consider chickpea, mungbean, and pigeonpea to be potential crops for the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The possibility of producing lupin in this region seems encouraging. Faba bean evaluation indicates that seedling and foliar diseases are a major hindrance to successful production.

REFERENCES


*We thank Dr. I.W. Budenhagen (University of California, Davis, California), Dr. L.H. Edwards (Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma), Dr. R.M. Hannan (USDA-ARS, NPGS, Pullman, Washington), Dr. R.S. Malhotra (ICARDA, Syria), Dr. L.C. Merrick (University of Maine, Orono, Maine), Dr. F.J. Muehlbauer (USDA-ARS, Pullman, Washington), Dr. S.C. Phatak (University of Georgia, Tifton, Georgia), Dr. B. Schatz (North Dakota State University, Carrington, North Dakota), Dr. C. Simon (USDA-ARS, NPGS, Pullman, Washington), and Dr. A. Slinkard, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask., Canada) for providing seeds of various crops.
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