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Lamberts, M. and J.H. Crane. 1990. Tropical fruits. p. 337-355. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), Advances in new crops. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

Tropical Fruits*

Mary Lamberts and Jonathan H. Crane


  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. TRADITIONAL TROPICAL FRUITS IN SOUTH FLORIDA
    1. Avocado (Persea americana Mill.)
    2. Lime (Citrus latifolia Tan.)
    3. Mango (Mangifera indica L.)
  3. SPECIALTY TROPICAL FRUITS IN SOUTH FLORIDA
    1. Annonas
    2. Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.)
    3. Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) and Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)
    4. Mamey Sapote [Calocarpum sapota (Jacq.) Merr.]
    5. Papaya (Carica papaya L.)
    6. Passion Fruit (Passiflora spp.)
  4. IMPORTS OF TROPICAL FRUITS
  5. THE FUTURE FOR TROPICAL FRUITS IN SOUTH FLORIDA
  6. REFERENCES
  7. Table 1
  8. Table 2
  9. Table 3
  10. Table 4

INTRODUCTION

Southern Florida has long been the site of tropical and subtropical fruit production and research, with avocados, 'Tahiti' limes, and mangos being the principal crops for many years. During the past five years (1983-88), there has been a major increase in the area planted to specialty tropical fruits in southern Florida. Longan and lychee plantings have doubled to 26 and 81 ha respectively, the area in carambola groves has increased by greater than 5-fold (currently 166 ha) and passion fruit has grown from a few experimental plantings to 14-16 ha. At the same time, plantings of Annona spp. (currently 42 ha) and papaya (currently 142 ha) have increased while mamey sapote (121 ha) has remained relatively constant. Some of this increase has been at the expense of avocados, some is on land previously used for winter vegetables, and the rest is on new fields.

Production increases have been accompanied by well developed marketing programs, particularly by the major tropical fruit packing houses, and by very favorable coverage by the news media. While these changes seem dramatic to those who have recently begun to watch this industry, it is well to view tropical fruit production in southern Florida from a historical perspective. Present plantings of mangos, which are slightly lower than they have been in the past, are concentrated primarily in Dade County rather than in both Dade and Palm Beach Counties. Statewide lychee hectarage in the 1950s was between 121 and 162 ha, with groves in more northerly locations including Lee, Sarasota, Manatee, Polk Highlands, and Martin Counties. A series of freezes over the years has caused a shift in the location of plantings to southern Dade County. The third crop which has had a major change in hectarage over the years is the papaya. During the 1950s and 1960s there were 810-1215 ha of papaya, but papaya ringspot virus wiped out these plantings, forcing papaya to be produced as an annual crop.

TRADITIONAL TROPICAL FRUITS IN SOUTH FLORIDA

The three tropical fruits which have been of major importance in South Florida are avocado (Lauraceae), 'Tahiti' lime (Rutaceae) and mango (Anacardiaceae). Avocados are grown on 4,656 ha and have an estimated annual value of $10.2 million. `Tahiti' (Persian) limes have an estimated annual value of $19.6 million and are produced on 2,915 ha. Mangos are grown on 1,012 ha and have an estimated annual value of $4.4 million.

Avocado (Persea americana Mill.)

Dade County's avocado trees are all grafted. There are approximately 63 commercial cultivars at this time. Florida-grown cultivars are West Indian or West Indian x Guatemalan hybrids. Of these, 'Booth-8', 'Choquette', 'Hall', 'Lula', 'Monroe', 'Pollock', and 'Simmonds' are the most important in commerce. Avocados are marketed under a Federal Marketing Order which sets maturity standards based on fruit diameter, fruit weight and picking date; these are established annually for each cultivar. The fruit are a good source of oil and minerals, having twice the potassium content of bananas (Table 1).

The primary insect pests are: avocado red mite [Oligonychus yothersi (McG)], thrips [red-banded thrips, (Hiliothrips rubrocinctus Giard.), and greenhouse thrips (H. haemorrhoidalis Bouche)], scales [Florida wax scale (Ceroplastes floridensis Comst.), Florida red scale (Chrysomphalus aonidium L.), latania scale (Aspidiotus lataniae Sig.), pyriform scale (Protopulvinaria pyriformis Ckll.)]. Avocados are also affected by several diseases including: anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz), which affects the fruit; avocado scab (Sphaceloma perseae Jenk.) on the fruit; Cercospora spot (Cercospora purpurea Cke.) on the leaves and fruit, root rot (Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands); and powdery mildew (Oidium sp).

Research on avocados in Florida is being conducted at the University of Florida's Tropical Research and Education Center (TREC) in Homestead and at the USDA Subtropical Horticultural Research Unit (USDA Station) in South Miami. Current research at the TREC is in the following areas: flooding and Phytophthora studies; hedging and topping for tree size control; and pollination studies, including cultivar compatibilities, pollination mechanisms, and major pollinators. Research at the USDA station is on breeding for cold hardiness and cultivar selection.

Lime (Citrus latifolia Tan.)

Limes in Dade County are either air layered or grafted on Citrus macrophylla Wester rootstock. The origin of the 'Tahiti' lime is unknown. It is considered to be a hybrid between Citrus aurantifolia (L.) Swingle and some other Citrus species. Like avocados, limes are marketed under a Federal Marketing Order. This specifies a minimum diameter of 4.76 cm and a minimum juice content of 42%. Limes are a good source of Vitamins A and C (Table 1).

There are several diseases and insects which cause damage to limes. Insect pests include: broad mite, [Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks], citrus red mite [Panonychus citri (McG.)], rust mite [Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead)] and snow scale [Unaspis citri (Comst.)]. The major diseases are: greasy spot (Mycosphaerella citri Whiteside), algal disease (Cephaleuros virescens Kunze), and foot rot (Phytophthora parasitica Dast.).

Current research efforts at the TREC include: post-bloom fruit drop-anthracnose studies; control of flowering and fruiting, including the use of plant growth regulators; and stylar-end breakdown.

Mango (Mangifera indica L.)

All mangos in Dade County are on grafted trees. Seedling rootstocks are commonly used. The major commercial cultivars are: 'Tommy Atkins', 'Keitt', 'Van Dyke', 'Kent', and 'Palmer'. There are many minor cultivars. Some of the more popular ones include: 'Edward', 'Glenn', 'Haden', and 'Irwin'. While mangos originated in Southeast Asia, Florida's monoembyronic cultivars are primarily from the Indian Subcontinent. Fruit are good sources of Vitamins A and C (Table 1).

Major insect pests are: mites [avocado red mite (Oligonychus yothersii (McG.)), tumid mite (Tetranychus tumidus (Banks)), and broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks))]; scales [lesser snow scale (Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley)); soft scales: pyriform scale (Protopulvinaria)p pyriformis is Ckll.), mango shield scale (P. mangiferae (Green)), acuminate scale (Kilifia acuminata (Sign.)), Florida wax scale (Ceroplastes floridensis Comst.); armored scales: Florida red scale (Chrysomphalus ficus (L.)), and dictyospermum scale (C. dictyospermi (Morg.))]; and thrips [red-banded thrips (Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Giard.)), and Florida flower thrips (Frankliniella cephalica (D.L. Crawford))]. Mango trees are also affected by mango decline, a problem associated with micronutrient deficiency. Diseases include: anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.), which affects fruits, inflorescences and foliage; powdery mildew (Oidium sp.) on inflorescences; and mango scab (Elsinoe, mangiferae, Bitanc & Jenk.). Internal breakdown of the fruit is an important problem, the cause of which has not yet been determined.

Mango research in Florida is centered at the TREC and the USDA station. Current research at the TREC on: tree size control through hedging and topping; genetics, including tissue culture; mango decline studies, fruit fly investigations; flooding tolerance; and studies on internal breakdown. Research at the USDA station is on: breeding for disease resistance, primarily anthracnose; cultivar selection; and on quarantine treatments for control of fruit fly larvae.

SPECIALTY TROPICAL FRUITS IN SOUTH FLORIDA

The specialty tropical fruits which are increasing in importance in South Florida belong to several families: Annonaceae—sugar apple and atemoya; Oxalidaceae—carambola; Sapindaceae—longan and lychee, Sapotaceae—mamey sapote; Passifloraceae—passion fruit; and Caricaceae—papaya. Fruits in each family will be discussed separately.

Annonas

The two members of the Annonaceae which are grown commercially in South Florida are the sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) and the atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa). Sugar apples, known locally as anon, are primarily seedling trees, though some are grafted. Atemoyas on the other hand are all grafted onto atemoya, sugar apple or A. reticulate L. (custard apple) rootstock. The major atemoya cultivar is 'Gefner'. Sugar apples originated in Tropical America while atemoyas are from Florida. Florida-grown cultivars, however, originated in Israel. Each crop had an annual estimated value of $200,000 in 1987-88. Sugar apples and atemoyas are good sources of potassium and contain moderate levels of Vitamin C (Table 1).

The major insect pests on both crops are annona seed borers [Bephratelloides cubensis (Ashmead)], philephedra scale [Philephedra tuberculosa (Nakahara and Gill)] and mealy bugs [Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhon) and P. calceolariae (Mask.)]. Anthracnose (Colletotricum gloeosporioides Penz.) is the major pathogen on both crops.

Research in Florida on the Annona family is centered at the TREC and the Dade County Cooperative Extension Service. Current projects at the TREC include: determination of pollinators, including Nitidulidae beetles (sap beetles); the life history, ecology and control of the annona seed borer; and grafting techniques for atemoya. IR-4 registrations of pesticides for both crops is being coordinated by the Dade County, Cooperative Extension Service. Registration is being sought for benomyl to control anthracnose, malathion for annona seed borer, and methidathion to control philaphedra scale and mealy bugs.

Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.)

Carambola production in Dade County is on grafted trees. Rootstocks are seedlings of whatever a nurseryman can obtain. 'Arkin', a sweet type (i.e., nonacid), is the primary cultivar, accounting for 97% of the acreage. Minor cultivars are 'Fwang Tung' and 'B-10', two other sweet types and 'Golden Star', the major tart type. Carambolas originated in Southeast Asia. 'Arkin' was selected by a local grower from seed brought from Thailand. Carambolas are good sources of Vitamin C and potassium and a relatively good source of Vitamin A. The current annual estimated value of this crop is $1.5 million.

Carambolas are relatively free of insect and disease problems. Green stink bugs [Acrosternum hilare (Sav)], philephedra scale (Philephedra tuberculosa Nakahara and Gill), and ambrosia beetles (Playtypus wilsoni Swaine) are encountered occasionally. Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.) and sooty mold (Leptothyrium spp.) sometimes affect the fruit, while nematodes (Rotylenchus reniformis Lindford and Oliveira) have been a problem on roots in isolated cases.

Florida research on carambolas is in three locations: the TREC, the USDA Station and the University of Florida's main campus in Gainesville. Flooding tolerance studies are in progress at the TREC. Efforts at the USDA station include breeding and compatibility/incompatibility studies. Postharvest work is being done in Gainesville.

Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) and Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)

Commercial production of longans and lychees in South Florida is on air layered trees. Longans originated in Southeast Asia while lychees came from China. The major longan cultivar is 'Kohala' which is from Hawaii. 'Mauritius', evidently from the island of the same name, is planted on 60% of the lychee hectarage. 'Brewster', and 'Sweet Cliff', which came from China, and 'Bengal', which is from Florida, are planted on the remaining 40%. Longans have an annual estimated value of $300,000 while the value of the lychee crop is $1.0 million. Lychees are a good source of Vitamin C and potassium (Table 1).

At present, longans have no major pest problems. There are no major pests on lychees, though scales [Florida red scale (Chrysomphalus ficus Ashmead), latania scale [Hemiberlesia lataniae (Sign.)], lychee bark scale, (Pseudaulacaspis major (Ckll.)), Florida wax scale (Ceroplastes floridensis Comst.), and pyriform scale (Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Ckll.))], nematodes (Hemicriconemoides mangiferae Siddiqui), and mushroom root rot [Clitocybe tabescens (Scop. ex Fr.) Bres.] cause occasional damage. Anthracnose (Colletotrictium gloeosporioides Penz.) is a problem on 'Mauritius' lychee fruit.

There is no current research on longans in Florida. Recent research on lychees has been on flowering studies at the TREC.

Mamey Sapote [Calocarpum sapota (Jacq.) Merr.]

Dade County mamey trees are grafted on seedling rootstocks. Mamey sapote has its origins in Mexico and Central America. The major cultivars at this time are 'Magana' and 'Pantin'. Minor cultivars are 'Tazumal' and 'Cuban No. 2'. The mamey sapote crop has an annual estimated value of $1.5 million.

There are no major insect pests of mamey sapote, though Cuban May beetles (Phyllophaga bruneri Chapin) and green leafhoppers (Empoasca sp.) cause occasional damage. There are no important pathogens, but Phytophthora sp. is suspected.

Recent research at the TREC has been on grafting techniques and cultivar selection and evaluation. Local growers are also active in the cultivar selection and evaluation process.

Papaya (Carica papaya L.)

Papayas are grown from seed, mostly as an annual crop, in Dade County. Tissue culture is also possible. Papayas originated in Tropical America. There are two main types of papaya: hermaphroditic 'Solo' types, and dioecious "fruta bomba" types. The former produce fruits which weigh 0.5-0.75 kg while the latter weigh 1.0 kg or more. They are good sources of Vitamins A and C and of potassium (Table 1). Papayas have an estimated annual value of $2.0 million.

Unlike some of the other specialty tropical fruits, papayas are affected by several insect, disease and nematode pests. The major insect pests are: papaya fruit fly (Toxotrypana curvicada Gerst.), papaya webworm (Homolapalpia dalera), and papaya whitefly (Trialeurodes variablilis). Philephedra scale (Philephedra tuberculosa( (Nakahara and Gill)) and 2-spotted mite [Tetranychus urticae (Koch)] are sometimes important as well. Papayas are replanted annually because of the severity of papaya ringspot virus, which is green peach aphid [Myrus persicae (Sulz.)] vectored, in Dade County. They are also affected by anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.) and powdery mildew (Oidium caricae Noack). Some local packing houses use a hot water bath to help minimize anthracnose as a postharvest problem. Root-knot and reniform nematodes [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitw. and Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford and Oliveira] can also be a problem in papaya plantings.

Current research on papayas in Florida is at two locations, the TREC and the USDA Insects Affecting Man Laboratory in Gainesville. Research at the TREC is on IR-4 registration of chlorothalonil for control of Alternaria; anthracnose; stem end rot, and papaya fruit fly. USDA research is on the use of a pheromone in traps for the papaya fruit fly.

Passion Fruit (Passiflora spp.)

There are two main types of passion fruit grown in Dade County: purple (Passiflora edulissims) and yellow (P. edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.). To date, the only named selection is 'Possum purple'. A hybrid red type has also been grown. Purple passion fruit are from Brazil while Australia may be the origin of the yellow passion fruit. Both types are good sources of Vitamins A and C and of potassium (Table 1). The crop is trellised or grown on fences. The current annual estimated value of passion fruit is $250,000.

Nematodes (Meloidgyne spp. and Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford and Oliveira) are a problem on passion fruit. Crown rot (Phytophthora spp. or Fusarium spp.) is a significant problem on the plants. Green stink bugs [Acrosternum hilare (Say)] and anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.) sometimes cause problems on the fruit as do scales [Florida red scale (Chrysomphalus ficus Ashmead), latania scale (Hemiberlesia lataniae Sign.)), and lesser snow scale (Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley))].

Current and recent research on passion fruit in Florida is at three locations: the USDA station, the TREC, and Florida International University USDA research encompasses: breeding and selection, including pollinators, and compatibility schemes. Research at the TREC is on IR-4 registration of chlorothalonit for Alternaria leaf and fruit spot. Florida International University was recently the site of research on major pollinators in South Florida and flower behavior.

IMPORTS OF TROPICAL FRUITS

Several of the tropical fruits being grown in South Florida, as well as some which are too tropical to raise in Florida, are imported from Asian, Latin American, Caribbean, and South Pacific countries (Table 2). Some are imported fresh or frozen, while others are canned or processed (Table 3).

Table 3 lists tropical fruits found in supermarkets in South Florida which are from Latin America and the Caribbean. While some of these products may be popular primarily among groups already familiar with them, others have the potential to be marketed nationally.

THE FUTURE FOR TROPICAL FRUITS IN SOUTH FLORIDA

Both avocados and 'Tahiti' limes are marketed under Federal Marketing Orders. The Administrative Committees for both groups are active in funding research on these commodities. The Florida Mango Forum, Inc., a Dade County based educational organization, is open to anyone interested in mangos. This group has recently become involved in promoting locally grown mangos and has been active in funding research programs.

Specialty tropical fruits have been part of the research program at the TREC since its establishment in 1930. Some of the problems which are now causing the industry concern have developed as hectarage has increased 'to combat these problems, in the summer of 1988, tropical fruit growers formed an organization called Tropical Fruit Growers of South Florida, Inc. Carambola growers are currently developing a program to asses themselves on a per unit weight basis to address research and marketing problems on this crop. Other commodity groups are considering their role in funding research as well.

Amateur horticulturists have also played an important role in the introduction and popularization of many of these fruits. Groups such as the Miami based Rare Fruit Council, International have done much to fund exploration for new fruit and new cultivars. Members have also been active in cultivar evaluation. Many, counties in southern Florida, especially coastal areas, are suitable for dooryard production of tropical and subtropical fruits (Table 4). Citrus can be grown as far north as Marion County if care is taken in selecting a site; certain very, hardy citrus will grow in protected areas of North Florida (Table 4).

The future of tropical fruits in South Florida seems very bright, especially considering the involvement of local growers in the research process and their commitment to funding these efforts. The aggressive marketing campaign which has accompanied increases in production is exemplary and should serve as a model for other industries. The major long term problem facing South Florida growers includes the lack of land for future expansion, and likely decreases of current agricultural areas due to urbanization. The policy of establishing fruit fly-free areas in the Caribbean and elsewhere will have a significant impact on Florida production, though the cost of getting this fruit to U.S. markets may outweigh some of the advantages of cheaper land and labor in other countries.

REFERENCES

The following references are based on work conducted primarily in Florida since 1970. During this same period, research was also being conducted in Australia, California, Hawaii, Israel and other locations.

General

Atemoya and Sugar Apple

Avocado

Carambola

Lime

Longan and Lychee

Mamey Sapote

Mango

Papaya

Passion Fruit

Florida Cooperative Extension Service Publications


*Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. N-00011


Table 1. Nutritional composition of 100 g of selected tropical fruits.z

Carbohydrates Minerals Vitamins
Fruit Water (%) Calories Protein (g) Fat (g) Total (g) Fiber (g) Ash (g) Ca (mg) P (mg) Fe (mg) Na (mg) K (mg) A (IU) Thiamine (mg) Riboflavin (mg) Niacin (mg) Ascorbic acid (mg)
Sugar apple, raw 73.3 94 1.8 0.3 23.7 1.7 0.9 22 41 0.6 11 275 10 0.10 0.14 1.0 34
Avocado, raw, Fl 78.0 128 1.3 11.0 8.8 (1.5) 0.9 10 42 0.6 4 604 290 0.11 0.20 1.6 14
Carambola, raw 90.4 35 0.7 0.5 8.0 0.9 0.4 4 17 1.5 2 192 1200 0.04 0.02 0.3 35
Lime, raw 89.3 28 0.7 0.2 9.5 0.5 0.3 33 18 0.6 2 102 10 0.03 0.02 0.2 37
Longan, raw 82.4 61 1.0 0.1 15.8 0.4 0.7 10 42 1.2 (6)
Lychee, raw 81.9 64 0.9 0.3 16.4 0.3 0.5 8 42 0.4 3 170 0.05 42
Mamey, raw 70.2 107 1.0 0.5 27.6 1.4 0.7 22 14 0.9 6 226 60 0.02 0.02 1.4 23
Mango, raw 81.7 66 0.7 0.4 16.8 0.9 0.4 10 13 0.4 7 189 4800 0.05 0,05 1.1 35
Papaya, raw 88.7 39 0.6 0.1 10.0 0.9 0.6 20 16 0.3 3 234 1750 0.04 0.04 0.3 56
Passion fruit, purple, raw, 75.1 90 2.2 0.7 21.2 0.8 13 64 1.6 28 348 700 Trace 0.13 1.5 30
zSources: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1972. Food composition table for use in East Asia, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. Watt, Bernice K., Annabel L. Merril, Rebecca K. Pecot, Catherine F. Adams, Martha Louise Orr and Donald F. Miller. 1975. Handbook of of the nutritional contents of foods. Prepared for the USDA. Dover Publications, Inc., New, York.


Table 2. 1985 United States imports of fresh and frozen tropical fruits under plant quarantine regulations.

Commodity Country Imports (kg) Percentage
of total
imports
Avocado Dominican Republic 1,614,981 88.3
Bahamas 201,487 11.0
Avocado, frozen Guatemala 1,167 100.0
Lime Mexico 34,616,780 88.5
Bahamas 3,591,837 9.2
Longan, frozen Thailand 33,662 100.0
Lychee Mexico 29,659 100.0
Lychee, frozen Thailand 14,869 62.1
Taiwan 9,080 37.9
Mango Mexico 29,783,489 74.9
Haiti 9,270,183 23.3
Mango, frozen Mexico 706,896 84.7
Dominican Republic 46,714 5.6
Peru 42,204 5.0
Guatemala 26,451 3.1
Papaya Mexico 1,841,234 51.1
Bahamas 1,602,760 45.4
Dominican Republic 126,868 3.5
Papaya, frozen Guatemala 108,466 41.7
Dominican Republic 97,693 37.6
Costa Rica 22,174 8.5
Honduras 18,621 7.1
Passion fruit New Zealand 39,429 100.0
Passion fruit, frozen Western Samoa 36,000 72.6
Dominican Republic 11,837 23.8
Ecuador 1,580 3.1
Sapote Colombia 288 100.0
Sapote, frozen Guatemala 2,280 92.6
Colombia 180 7.3
Soursop, frozen Dominican Republic 121,890 94.8
Costa Rica 3,381 2.6
Venezuela 3,183 2.4
Tamarind bean pod Mexico 467,005 71.6
Dominican Republic 183,895 28.1
Tamarind bean pod, frozen Dominican Republic 65,498 91.6
Costa Rica 5,937 8.3
Sources: Wright, Mary. 1986. U.S. Imports of fruits and vegetables under plant quarantine, regulations, fiscal year 1985. USDA., Econ. Res. Serv., Int. Econ. Div. ERS Staff Report No. AGES860304, Washington, DC. Limes: Federal-State Market News Service. 1986. Marketing Florida Tropical Fruits and Vegetables. Summary 1985-86 Season. Federal-State Market News Service, Winter Park, FL.


Table 3. Tropical fruit products found in eight South Florida supermarketsz with country, of origin—October 1988.

Section Brand Product Origin
Juice Goya Guanabana
Guava
Mango
Papaya
Pear & Passion fruit
Pineapple & Guava
Pineapple & Passion fruit
Tamarind
Grace Papaya Puerto Rico
Soursop Puerto Rico
Iberia Coconut-Pineapple punch
Guanabana
Guava
Mango
Papaya
Tamarind
Jumex Guava Mexico
Mango Mexico
Papaya & Pineapple Mexico
Tamarind Mexico
La Preferida Guava
Mango
Tamarind
Libby Banana
Guava
Mango
Mauna Lai Hawaiian guava Hawaii
Hawaiian guava-Passion fruit Hawaii
Pascual Guava drink
Mango drink
Sans Souci Soursop
Tamarind
Summer Song Passion fruit
Tropical papaya
Mango
Sunny Delight Guava nectar
Papaya nectar
Tropicana Orange-Strawberry-Banana
Orange-Passion fruit
Canned including jellies & pastes Ancel Grated Coconut
Guava marmalade Dominican Republic
Guava paste
Guava paste with Guava jelly
Guava shells
Orange shells Dominican Republic
Papaya chunks Dominican Republic
Conchita Boniatillo (sweet potato) Brazil
Grated coconut Dominican Republic
Green papaya chunks Brazil
Guanabana Dominican Republic
Guava marmalade Brazil
Guava paste Brazil
Guava preserves Brazil
Guava shells Brazil
Mango marmalade Dominican Republic
Mango slices Dominican Republic
Orange shells Dominican Republic
Papaya chunks Brazil
Papaya slices Brazil
Del Rio Guava paste Brazil
Dona Paula Guava sifting Colombia
Goya Cream of coconut
Guava marmalade
Guava paste
Guava shells Brazil
Iberia Grated coconut
Guava marmalade
Guava shells
Orange shells
Papaya chunks
La Cubanita Grated coconut Dominican Republic
Guava cream
Guava jelly
Guava paste
Guava paste with jelly
Guava paste with milk cream
Mango cream
Mango paste
Milk cream
Napolitano: Guava, Milk cream
Napolitano: Mango, Guava, Milk cream
La Cubanita Orange cream
Orange paste
Orange shells Dominican Republic
Papaya chunks Dominican Republic
Quince membrillo
La Fe Coconut
Guava
Guava paste
Guava paste with Guava jelly
Mamey
Papaya chunks
Nana Guava shells Dominican Republic
Pava Naranjilla halves Ecuador
Babaco Ecuador
Solofruta Guava paste units Colombia
Dried Del Monte Fruit snacks
Tropical fruit mix
Frozen AAA Guanabana Dominican Republic
Mamey Guatemala
Papaya Costa Rica
Passion fruit Costa Rica
Pineapple Costa Rica
Tamarind Dominican Republic
Caribik Sun Guava nectar Puerto Rico
Soursop nectar Puerto Rico
Tamarind nectar Puerto Rico
Fela Passion fruit Dominican Republic
Golden Tropic Pineapple chunks Costa Rica
Goya Mango Dominican Republic
Jagua Banana leaves Guatemala
Mango Guatemala
La Fe Anon (sweet sop) Dominican Republic
Papaya Guatemala
Passion fruit Dominican Republic
Tamarind Dominican Republic
Tropicsun Anon Dominican Republic
Coconut Dominican Republic
Guanabana Dominican Republic
Mamey Honduras
Mango Dominican Republic
Nance Guatemala
Papaya Dominican Republic
Passion fruit-Parcha Dominican Republic
Pineapple Guatemala
Tamarind Dominican Republic
Truvy Anon (sweet sop) Dominican Republic
Coconut Dominican Republic
Guanabana
Mamey Guatemala
Mango Dominican Republic
Papaya Costa Rica
Passion fruit Dominican Republic
Pineapple Costa Rica
Yucatica Coconut Costa Rica
Mamey Guatemala
Mango Costa Rica
Nance Costa Rica
Health Food After The Fall Golden passion
Orange papaya
RW Knudsen Papaya nectar
Family Strawberry-Guava juice
Health Valley Fruit jumbos
Tropical fruit cookies
jams & Poiret Pear & Passion fruit spread
jellies Palmalito Guava jelly
Deep South Guava jelly
zStores surveyed: Food Land, Homestead; Publix, Fort Lauderdale; Sedanos, Miami; Table Supply; Naranja Lakes; Tropical Supermarket, Miami; Winn Dixie, Homestead; Xtra, Hialeah, Florida.


Table 4. Dooryard tropical and subtropical fruits which can be grown in Florida.z

Family Scientific name Common name(s) Plant type Cold
hardinessy
Cultivarx
Anacardiaceae Mangifera indica L. Mango Large tree SCo Some Anth. res, fair qual.: Carrie, Early Gold, Florigon, Glenn, Saigon Good qual., poor Anth. res.: Irwin, Keitt, Kent, Palmer, Sensation, Tommy, Atkins.
Spondias cytherea Sonn. Ambarella, golden apple Medium tree SCo
Spondias purpurea L. Red mombin, purple mombin Medium tree SCo
Spondias mombin L. Yellow mombin, hog plum Medium tree SCo
Annonaceae Annona reticulata L. Custard apple Small tree SCo
Annona squamosa L. Sugarapple, sweetsop Small tree SCo
Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola Mill. Atemoya Small tree SCo African Pride, Page
Apocynaceae Carissa grandiflora DC Natal plum, carissa Shrub Pro
Araceac Monstera deliciosa Liebm. Monstera, ceriman Large vine SCo
Bromeliaceae Ananas comosus Merr. Pineapple Bromeliad SCo Abakka, Natal Queen, Pernambuco red, Spanish, Smooth Cayenne
Cactaceae Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. Prickly pear Cactus "shrub" All
Caricaceae Carica papaya L. Papaya Arborescent herb SCo Solo, Cariflora, seedlings
Combretaceac Terminalia L. Tropical almond Medium tree SCo
Ebenaceae Diospytos ebenaster Retz Black sapote Medium tree SCo
Diospytos discolor Willd. Velvet apple Medium tree SCo
Euphorbiaceae Antidesma bunuis (L.) Spreng. Bignay, antidesma Small tree SCo
Flacourtiaceae Dovyalis caffra (Hook. f. et Harv.) Warb. Kei-apple, Caffir plum Shrub Pro
Dovyalis hebecarpa Warb. Ceylon gooseberry Large shrub Pro
Flacourtia indica Merr. Governor's plum Shrub Pro
Guttiferae Mammea americana L. Mamey apple Medium tree SCo
Rheedia macrophylla (Mart.) Planch. et Triana Bacuripari, charichuela Medium tree SCo
Lauraceae Persea americana Mill. Avocado Large tree SCo, Pro Cent Fla: Day, Duke Gainsville, Mexicola, Teague, Topa Topa, Winter Mexican, Young S. Fla.: Booth 7, Booth Brogdon, Choquette, Hall, Itzamma, Lula, Monroe, Taylor, Tonnage, Pollock, Simmonds
Leguminosae Tamarindus indica L. Tamarind Medium tree SCo sweet & tart types
Malpighiaceae Malpighia glabra L. Barbados cherry, acerola Shrub SCo Florida Sweet
Meliaceae Lansium domesticum Correa Langsat, lanson Medium tree SCo
Moraceae Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Jackfruit Large tree SCo
Artocarpus hypargyrea Hance ex Benth. Kwai muk Medium tree SCo
Musaceae Musa acuminata Colla and M. acuminata and M. balbissiana Colla hybrids Banana Perennial herb SCo Apple, Dwarf Cavendish, Orinoco, Lady Finger
Musa acuminata Colla and M. acuminata and M. balbissiana hybrids Plantain Perennial herb SCo
Myrtaceae Eugenia uniflora L. Surinam cherry Shrub Pro
Feijoa selowiana Berg Feijoa, pineapple guava Shrub All Choiceana, Coolidge, Superba
Myrciaria cauliflora Berg Jaboticaba Small tree Pro
Pimentia dioica L. Allspice Small tree SCo
Psidium cattelianum Sabine Cattley guava, strawberry guava Shrub All
Psidium guajava L. Guava Small tree SCo
Syzygium aqueum Burm. f. Wax jambu, rose apple Large tree SCo
Oxalidaceae Averrhoa carambola L. Carambola Medium tree Pro Arkin, Fwang Tung, Golden Star, Thai Knight, Thayer, Kary, Hew 1, Maha
Palmae Cocas nucifera L. Coconut Palm SCo Maypan, Golden Malayan, Green Malayan
Passifloraceae Passiflora edulis Sims Passion fruit Vine Pro Possum Purple, purple, red & yellow seedlings
P. edulis f. flavacarpa Deg.
Passiflora quadrangularis L. Giant Granadilla Vine SCo
Polygonaceae Cocoloba uvifera (L.) L. Sea grape Medium tree SCo
Proteaceae Macadamia integrifolia Maiden et Betche Macadamia Medium tree Pro
M. tetraphylla L.A.S. Johnson Macadamia Medium tree Pro
Rhamnaceae Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Jujube, Chinese Small tree All
Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Jujube, Indian Small tree All
Rosaceae Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. Loquat Medium tree All Wolfe, Oliver, Tanaka
Rubus lasiocarpus Smith Mysore raspberry Shrub SCo
Rutacaee Casimoira edulis Llave et Lex. White sapote Medium tree SCo
Citrus aurantifolia (L.) Swing. Key lime, West Indian lime Small tree SCo
Citrus deliciosa Tenore Tangerine Medium tree Cit Willowleaf
Citrus hystrix DC Kaffir lime Medium tree Cit
Citrus latifolia Tan. Tahiti lime, Persian lime Medium tree SCo
Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f Lemon Medium tree Cit Bearss, Lisbon, Meyer, Ponderosa, Villafranca, etc.
Citrus medica L. Citron Medium tree Cit
Citrus mitis Blanco Calamondin Medium tree Cit
Citrus nobilis Lour. Tangerine Medium tree Cit King
Citrus paradisi Mad. Grapefruit Medium tree Cit Duncan, Marsh, Pink Marsh, Red Blush, Thompson
Citrus reticulata Blanco Mandarin Medium tree Cit Dancy, Fremont, Lee, Murcot, Nova, Osceola, Page, Ponkan, Robison
Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. Sweet orange Medium tree Cit Hamlin, Navel, Parson Brown, Pineapple, Queen, Valencia
Citrus unshiu Marc. Satsuma mandarin Medium tree HCit Owari, Silverhill (satsuma)
Citrus x limon Rough lemon Medium tree Cit
Citrus reticulata Blanc. x C. paradisi Tangelo Medium tree Cit Minneola, Orlando, Robinson
Citrus reticulata Blanc. x C. sinensis Tangor Medium tree Cit
Citrus lansium (Lour.) Skeels Wampi Small tree Pro
Fortunella sp. Kumquat Small tree Hcit
Fortunella sp. x C. aurantifolia Swing. Limequat Small tree Cit Eustis, Lakeland
Fortunella sp. (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.) Citrangequat Small tree HCit Thomasville
Rootstocks for Citrus
Citrus aurantium L. Sour orange, Seville orange Rootstock Cit
Citrus limonia Osb. Rangpur lime Rootstock Cit
Citrus macrophylla Wester Macrophylla Rootstock SCo
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. Trifoliate orange Rootstock Cit
Sapindaceae Blighia sapida Koenig Akee Medium tree SCo
Dimocarpus longan Lour. Longan Medium tree Pro Kohala, seedlings
Litchi chinensis Sonn. Lychee Large tree Pro Brewster, Bengal, Mauritius
Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. Spanish lime Large tree SCo
Sapotaceae Calocarpum sapota Merr. Mamey sapote Large tree SCo
Chrysophyllum cainito L. Caimito, star apple Medium tree SCo
Manilkara zapota Van Royen Sapodilla Large tree Pro Brown Sugar, Modello, Prolific, Russell
Pouteria campechiana Baehni Canistel, egg fruit Small tree SCo
Synsepalum dulcificum Daniell Miracle fruit Small tree SCo
zAdapted from Jackson, L.K. and F.P. Lawrence. 1988. Dooryard citrus. Fruit Crops FactSheet FC-13. Fla. Coop. Ext Serv., Gainsville. and Sauls, Julian W. Larry K. Jackson, and T. E. Crocker. 1983. Dooryard citrus. Fruit Crops Fact Sheet FC-23 Fla. Coop. Ext Serv., Gainsville.
yHCit—can be grown in north Florida if hardy cultivars are chosen and attention is given to site selection. Cit—can be grown in south and central Florida (up to Ocala [Marion County]) if discretion is used in selecting a site. SCo—can be grown in all but coldest areas of Broward and Monroe Counties plus coastal regions of Palm Beach, Martin, Saint Lucie, Indian River, Brevard, Collier, Lee, Charlotte, Sarasota, Manatee, Hillsborough, and Pinellas Counties; also south and east sides of Lake Okeechobee. Pro—may be grown in protected locations of south and possibly central Florida. All—can be grown in all areas of Florida.
xIn cases where cultivars are not specified, named selections may or may not be available in Florida; seedlings or cuttings are grown. This list is subject to change with changes in commercial production.


Last update March 12, 1997 by aw