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Perry, M.C. 1990. International system for germplasm: New crop genetic resources and the international board for plant genetic resources. p. 75-84. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), Advances in new crops. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

International System for Germplasm: New Crop Genetic Resources and the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources

M.C. Perry


  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. A STRATEGY FOR A GLOBAL PROGRAM
  3. NEW CROPS—AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
    1. Wild Plants That May Be Domesticated
    2. Crops Not Under Cultivation in the U.S.
  4. CONCLUSIONS
  5. REFERENCES
  6. Table 1
  7. Table 2
  8. Table 3

INTRODUCTION

Germplasm is any form of the hereditary material from an organism. Genetic resources encompass all the various forms of germplasm that are available for collection, storage and use. The genetic diversity of crops, represented by traditional local cultivars and wild relatives has been disappearing rapidly during recent decades. Initial concem was noted by H.V. Harlan in the 1930s (Harlan and Maritini 1936) but by the 1960s, modern plant breeding and land-use changes accelerated loss and stimulated the realization that genetic resources in regions of diversity were being lost at an alarming rate.

Concerted international activities to collect and preserve crop genetic resources were initiated by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Technical conferences organized by FAO in 1961, 1967 and 1973 stimulated the global awareness with regard to conservation of genetic resources. In 1971, the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) was formed with cosponsorship from FAO, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the World Bank. The 1973 FAO Technical Conference and a United Nations Environment Conference in Stockholm in 1972, led to recommendations for a global program. The International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) was subsequently established in 1974 by the CGIAR as one of 13 International Agricultural Research Centres (IARC). As a secretariat organization, IBPGR was charged with salvaging threatened germplasm and ensuring that it was described, documented and conserved (Williams 1989).

Before IBPGR was created, genetic resources programs were based in the developed world or in other centres of the CGIAR (Table 1). Many of the existing programs were the result of plant introduction programs or were centered around historic collections. In 1974, fewer than five conservation facilities worldwide were available for good storage of seed. Also, collections of vegetatively propagated crops were small, did not represent existing variation in local varieties and had suffered severe generic losses due to handling (Franker 1975). The documentation of both seed and vegetative collections was inadequate or non-existent. There was a significant lack of information on the ranges and patterns of variation in field populations of old cultivars, landraces, weedy and wild relatives, and the degree of threat to these populations (Williams 1984).

A STRATEGY FOR A GLOBAL PROGRAM

In the past 15 years, there has been a tremendous development of programs around the world dealing with various aspects of plant genetic resources conservation. When initially established, IBPGR set global priorities through the advice of crop experts, for the collection and conservation of crops. The highest priority was given to those crops that were staples for the majority of the global population and those areas containing the highest generic diversity. After development, priorities for conservation included over 85 crops [50 of only local priority in particular areas (Table 2)].

IBPGR plays a catalytic role in establishment of research programs and projects by providing initial funding and scientific expertise. It has a responsibility to assist in establishing new genetic resources programs and to integrate these with current ones as quickly as possible. Very early, a strategy was developed that included the collection, conservation, characterization, and documentation of generic resources. This ran concurrently with the initiation or strengthening of national genetic resources programs and training in and for developing countries. The IBPGR has worked with and collaborated with almost all countries of the world regardless of political affiliation.

The activities of the IBPGR touch all areas of plant genetic resources work. The field program is served by both headquarters and field staff and includes acquisition, conservation and documentation of genetic resources. IBPGR has sponsored over 400 collecting projects in all parts of the world (115 countries) that have resulted in over 166,000 samples deposited in genebanks. Because IBPGR does not maintain any, germplasm, it enters into agreements with national and international genebanks to conserve collected germplasm This has resulted in a network of over 30 base (seed) collections. Assistance has been provided whereby, 15 long-term storage facilities and numerous short-term facilities have been established, many in developing countries. Support has also been directed toward establishment of field genebanks in some areas. Standards for conservation of seed have been developed and accepted throughout the international community. Characterization and preliminary evaluation of genetic resources is also an active area. Descriptor lists have been or are currently being developed for over 60 crops or crop groups. Support has also been provided for characterization and multiplication of some collections. Documentation and information management activities have included providing and developing directories of institutes holding various material, technical assistance to centres in developing countries with major collections and development of standards for the establishment of crop databases. Funding for the establishment and compilation of crop databases has been provided for a number of the major crops. Training has been partly or completely funded by IBPGR for personnel in technical, manage ment and supervisory areas. A variety of short technical courses have provided training to over 600 trainees from developing countries with over 100 receiving extended postgraduate training financed by IBPGR.

The research program of IBPGR is a relatively new area within IBPGR. There are three areas of potential emphasis. Research in conservation technology is still needed, for seeds and vegetatively propagated crops through in vitro techniques. A major project involves (with the Centro Intemacional de Agricultura Tropical (ICAT) investigating the logistics of conservation of in vitro material and the genetic changes that occur in cassava during in vitro storage. Pathological aspects of germplasm conservation and exchange is another major area. A conceptual framework has been developed for an enclosed quarantine system, a component of which is disease indexing. Genetic diversity research is needed because of the constraints in implementing the collecting of diversity from wider gene pools. Current research is based on species complexes in primary, secondary, and tertiary gene pools depending on the sophistication of breeding specific crops.

Throughout the implementation of the above activities, IBPGR has developed a large consortium of collaborators throughout the world. It has developed into a repository of information based on current and past contact with hundreds of institutes and individuals worldwide. Field staff are also located in areas where national programs need to be stimulated and assisted and genetic resources work needs to be pushed.

NEW CROPS—AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

From an international point of view, it is difficult to use the term "new crop" unless it is known the particular plant is not commercially utilized or exploited anywhere in the world. The IBPGR bases priorities for projects on the situation of the particular crop or crop gene pool in a particular area. These projects may include crops that are cultivated and important in other parts of the world, but not the U.S.

For the purpose of this paper, a new crop is a single species or a group of related species that is not grown and commercially exploited in the U.S. This definition allows inclusion of crops that may be produced outside, but are currently marketed within North America. New crops can be classified into (1) wild and weedy plants that are potential domesticates and (2) crops that are utilized in other places but would be new to the U.S.

Wild Plants That May Be Domesticated

Domestication of wild species for development as new crops have been attempted for several species in many different programs. Significant results have not been obtained in most cases (Ingram and Williams 1984). Many of these crops show potential (Ritchie 1979) but the ultimate success is determined by market forces and only sugarbeet, rubber and oil palm have been domesticated in recent times (Ingram and Williams 1984). Science provides a great potential for the rapid exploitation of wild plants, however economics demands rapid exploitation of those species that can provide compounds needed for pharmaceutical, cosmetic or insecticidal applications. Though necessary, these plants are not of high priority with IBPGR. In situ conservation efforts with special regard to natural reserves have received much attention. These areas permit unhindered evolution and may provide the best alternative to conservation of these wild plants. The IBPGR has established links with the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), and the Man and Biosphere Program of Unesco with the aim of stimulating in situ conservation. These areas are concentrated mainly in the tropics where the widest range of potential new crops occur, (van Sloten and Holle 1988).

Crops Not Under Cultivation in the U.S.

IBPGR activities have covered a wide range of crops and crop groups. Table 2 lists some of the crop groups, crops and the scope of the collection for major species conserved in the global base collection network. In the following sections, a general summary of IBPGR activities is presented for crop groups. Also, within each group, several specific crops that are currently under study or may have potential as new crops in the U.S. are described in more detail. Selected uncited IBPGR publications related to the crop groups are presented in Table 3.

Forages. There is an undisputed need to conserve genetic resources of forages because of the increasing amount of land being converted from forest to pasture, and the importance of animal products as a source of dietary protein. The large number of genera and species within this group creates a challenging task for genetic resources conservation. A broad ranging forage conservation program has been followed by IBPGR. in this program, particular emphasis was given to collection and conservation of material from arid, semi-arid, tropical and subtropical zones. To facilitate this work, IBPGR has enhanced cooperation with international centers, including the International Livestock Center for Africa (ILCA), the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) and the Centro International de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) as well as national PTO grams in Australia and Brazil (Plucknett et al. 1987). Work with the temperate grasses and forages has been facilitated through ties with the European Cooperative Programme for Conservation and Exchange of Crop Genetic Resources. The collection and conservation programs have been augmented with education program,including post-graduate training and publications in forage genetic resources. Ecological and geographic surveys of several species have been sponsored and or conducted by IBPGR. These surveys utilize field data to maximize the sampling of genetic diversity in areas of high diversity. They also assist in the the selection of samples for more efficient utilization of germplasm in forages and the wild relatives of other crops (IBPGR 1985). To increase the conservation possibilities of Cynodon and Digitaria species, the development of tissu culture techniques that will aid in their collection has been supported by IBPGR in cooperation with ILCA.

Fruits. IBPGR's work with temperate fruit genetic resources has principally involved Prunus and Vitis (van Sloten and Holle 1988). Several temperate fruit and nut species have been collected and conserved in areas of extreme genetic erosion but collection of additional material was limited until a survey of the status of temperate fruit germplasm was completed by the National Clonal Repository in Corvallis, Oregon. Research projects involving seed and in vitro storage of these genera have been supported by the IBPGR with the intent of determining effective, alternate techniques for conservation relative to the current clonal methodology (van Sloten and Holle 1988).

Subtropical and tropical fruits are an important asset to the countries in which they are produced, both nutritionally and economically. The IBPGR has provided support for the collection, conservation, ecogeographic and systematic surveys of fruits that are regionally and locally important. Current efforts emphasize mango, citrus, banana and related wild species, especially those in Southeast Asia. The biological aspects of the conservation and propagation for banana and citrus lead to the support of research to develop in vitro tissue culture techniques for conservation and collection.

IBPGR has been involved in the collection and conservation of many different tropical and subtropical fruits that are underutilized or unexploited in the U.S.:

Passiflora edulis (passionfruit) has become increasingly popular as an ingredient in fruit drinks, but at least 40 other species of Passiflara have edible fruits (IBPGR 1986), between ten to thirteen of these are reportedly cultivated. Most of the cultivated species are naive to South America but both the cultivated and wild species are reported to naturalize easily even tending to weediness (IBPGR 1986). While many of these species grow throughout the tropics, most are consumed locally with only a few traded internationally. There is the potential to utilize fruits in products such as jams, jellies, ice creams and other desserts and one is important medicinally (P. incarnata).

Annona cherimola (cherimoya) is a backyard crop native to the nonhem Andes, the fruit of which has slightly acid but delicate banana-pineapple flavored flesh (IBPGR 1986). The crop is in increasing demand in the world market and is exported by a few countries including Spain and Chile. It has been used as a fresh fruit and in ice creams or deserts. There are some small collections of Annona germplasm. A relatively large colleclion of A. muricata is located in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico (IBPGR 1986).

Solanum muricatum (pepino), produces a seedless, watery and pleasantly favorable fruit on a very fast growing shrub. In its native South America, it is a traditional backyard crop. The fruit is also produced on a small scale in Hawaii, southern Califomia and the southeastem U.S. It is currently commercially produced in New Zealand and has potential for extended commercial cultivation as a specialty fruit in the U.S.

Cereals and Grain Legumes. Since its creation, the IBPGR has given emphasis to the major cereals because they are staples for much of the world's population. IBPGR has organized the collection of landrace and wild material, sponsored duplication and conservation, and provided funding for characterization work on maize, wheat, barley, rice, sorghum and millets. Ecogeographic surveys of the Triticeae tribe, wild Sorghum, Eleusine and teosinte have been supported in areas of high diversity.

Several species of the Pennisetum millets are very valuable human food in and portions of Africa, Asia and the Mediterranean (Plucknett et al. 1987). These species, probably of central African origin (Purseglove 1976), thrive in ecologically marginal lands, including those with poor soils and areas where drought is common. The IBPGR has been active in collecting substantial landrace material, most of which has been the common pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum). The relatively high average protein content of the grain and the potential to use the plant as silage in somewhat unproductive lands creates interesting opportunities for developing Pennisetum species as new crops in the U.S.

Food or grain legumes are a major staple in Latin America, Southwest Asia, the Indian subcontinent, East Asia, and Africa. Legumes are among the best natural sources of vegetable proteins, calories, vitamins and minerals. Some are also high in oil. Many different legumes have received considerable attention with regard to germplasm acquisition and conservation within the IBPGR program. Phaseolus, Vigna, Arachis, Cicer, Lens, Pisum, Cajanus, Vicia and Glycine have been collected and conserved in many regions of the world. IBPGR works closely with many national programs and CIAT, ICARDA, ICRISAT, the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), and the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC) in a concerted effort to collect, conserve and characterize legume germplasm.

Two genera of food legumes, Lupinus and Psophocarpus are not currently exploited in the U.S., but may have potential sources as interesting crops. The lupins have two centers of diversity, one in the Mediterranean and one in South America. Many lupins are very vigorous, rapidly growing on poor land, with easilv harvested seeds high protein and oil. They have been used as grain food, animal forage, for soil improvement and as ornamentals (Smith 1976). The Latin American species, Lupinus mutabilis, is the most important cultivated lupin in South America because of its wide use as food in the Andean region. It has been collected extensively and conserved throughout its region of diversity for many years with IBPGR support. The Mediterranean lupins (including L. albus and L. luteus) are not as important there as L. mutabilis is in the Andes. The IBPGR has been actively supporting national institutes, especially in Portugal and Spain, to collect these and related species, principally in the Iberian peninsula. The high alkaloid content in the lupin seed creates a barrier to their quick acceptance. It is possible, however, to change this through breeding, potentially releasing a vigorous plant with a high protein content.

The winged bean has been considered a potential new crop in the U.S. for many years (NAS 1975). Psophocarpus tetragonolobus, a native of tropical Asia, is a very important crop in Papua, New Guinea and South east Asia because of its edible leaves, seeds, pods and tuberous roots, all with a high protein content. The beans can also produce an edible oil. There are currently large holdings of this species, formed principally through IBPGR support of many different collecting missions. These germplasm collections can facilitate research on the adaptability of the species to northern latitude daylight and climatic conditions. The potential use of the winged bean as a high protein forage in conjunction with harvestable tuberous roots, or as an edible legume seed creates an alternative to some of the more traditional U.S. bean and root crops.

Pseudocereals. The IBPGR has been active since 1978 in assisting national and regional institutes in the collection and conservation of several Andean grain crops including quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), canihua (C. pallidicaule), and coimi (Amaranthus caudatus). The cultivation of these crops has been shrinking in their native regions since the introduction of the Old World cereals in the 1500s (Plucknett et al. 1987). Relatively large collections of these species are now established in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Quinoa produces a grain on a broad leafed plant. It is rugged, heavily seeded (Simmonds 1976) and thrives in poor soils. The grain is rich in protein, contains a good amino acid balance, and possibly can be improved to be a better protein source than most of the common cereals. Quinoa has a light taste, may be used to thicken soups, or popped like popcorn (NAS 1975). A detriment to its use is that the outer lavers of the seedcoat of most types contain saponins (water soluble glucosides) that cause it to be bitter-tasting. This can be removed through breeding, washing, or milling. The grain can currently be purchased inside the U.S. and is grown successfully in Colorado and England. With several related cultivate species (C. pallidicaule, C. nuttaliae) and wild species there is a broad genetic base that can be used for improvement and adaptation of quinoa to non-native regions.

The amaranths have received significant world-wide attention because they are fast growing and produce high-protein grains in large seed heads. Vegetable amaranths are widely known for their protein-rich leaves that can be harvested many times a year (NAS 1975). The IBPGR has been active in the collection, conservation and characterization of the genetic resources of many species of amaranths. Amaranthus hypochondriacus, A. cruentu, and A. caudatus are native to Mexico, Central America and the Andes, and are important in these regions but also in Africa and India principally as a grain crop (Grubben and van Sloten 1981). The high lysine grain is usually parched and milled for dough for pancakes, cooked for gruel or made into drinks (NAS 1975). The vegetable amaranths (A. tricolor and A. dubius) produce a leaf characterized as succulent and spinach-like. They are extremely popular around their regions of diversity, including India, and tropical South or Southeast Asia. A tremendous amount of diversity exists in these species and the wild, related species are sometimes used and or cultivated. The Organic Gardening and Farming Research Center of Rodale Press, Kutztown, PA began research on grain amaranths in 1975 and has been given responsibility for the characterization and increase of material distributed throughout the IBPGR global network.

Vegetable Crops. Root and tuber germplasm is, in general, not well represented in germplasm collections, with the exception of the potato (Plucknett et al. 1987). For the potato, most of IBPGR's work has been directed to providing assistance to national centers to collect and conserve local cultivated and wild relative germplasm. The primary responsibility for this crop lies with the Centro International de la Papa (CIP). The IBPGR has worked closely with CIAT and national programs to collect and duplicate cultivated and wild cassava (Manihot sp.) germplasm. Extensive support has also been provided to CIAT to develop techniques for maintaining cassava germplasm in vitro and using cryopreservation techniques. In addition to the collection and conservation of Ipomoea spp. germplasm in South America, Southeast Asia and the Pacific, IBPGR supported projects have included preliminary evaluation of morphological and cytological traits, in vitro conservation, and training in various aspects of sweet potato genetic resources. The collection of more regionally important roots and tubers have been accomplished through multi-crop or crop-specific missions. Representative genera include Colocasia, Dioscorea, Alocasia, and Xanthosoma.

There are several genera of root crops of Andean origin that have been collected and conserved througf, IBPGR support because of their importance in their native regions. Oxalis tuberosa and Ullucus tuberosus are of significant importance as starchy foods. The importance of U. tuberosus is often greater than that of Oxalis. Regional production is of such an extent that distribution to larger cities is possible. Oxalis and Ullucus ha ve potential in the U.S. as new crops because of their diversity in taste (ranging from sugary to acid) and tolerance of harsh growing conditions, including poor soils and high altitudes. Both of these crops, however, require additional research with regard to virus eradication (Stone 1982). Arracacia xanthorrhiza, is a herbaceous perennial that produces smooth skinned starchy roots and edible stems that resemble celery. The roots produce a starch that is easily digested and has a delicate flavor and crisp texture (NAS 1975), and is used to enhance stews and soups. Additional research on these three crops could reveal as yet unseen potential with regard to fillers and flavorings.

The IBPGR's work with the conservation of Latin American, African, and Asian vegetables began in 1980 and coincided with the push for conservation by national and regional programs. This concurrent effort resulted in a doubling of collection sizes in five years (Plucknett et al. 1987). The IBPGR has devoted the greatest effort to the collection of landraces and primitive cultivars of Lycopersicon, Capsicum, Allium, Abelmoschus, Brassica, Solanum (eggplant), and several Cucurbitaceae genera. The collection of wild species for manv of these crops as well as multiplication and characterization of several collections has been partly or completely sponsored by IBPGR. The regional importance of many of these vegetables, justified the funding for conservation facilities in many countries in Africa, Asia and South America.

There are several vegetables of importance on a more local basis that have been conserved with IBPGR support. Cucurbits like Sechium, Luffa, and Momordica are currently underexploited in the U.S. In the Central American (Sechium) and sub-Asian (Luffa and Momordica) areas of origin (Smith 1976), the fruits from several species are used as important additions to the more common vegetables. The large, one-seeded fruits of Sechium edule are eaten raw or boiled and the roots are used as a starchy food. Luffa cylindrica and L. acutangula fruits are cooked, but dried fruits from Luffa are used as sponges (Smith 1976). The fruits of Momordica charantia are also used as cooked vegetables, but can also be pickled and used in curries. All of these are potentially valuable in extending the variety of vegetables that are currently in demand in oriental and vegetable dishes. Two Brassicas, B. campestris subsp. chinensis (pak-choi or Chinese mustard) and B. campestris subsp. pekinensis (Chinese cabbage) originated in China and are of major importance in East and Southeast Asia (IBPGR 1981). The former produces shoots and the later heads of leaves. These species are now filling a void for domestic, low cost oriental vegetables. Both are reported to exist in hybrid varieties in Japan (McNaughton 1976). Domestic ptoduction can be enhanced through the utilization of the variation that exists in several important germplasm collections (IBPGR 1988).

Industrial Crops. Although the IBPGR works primarily with staple food crops, a number of industrial crops have also been incorporated when they are of importance in rural development. Most of the work to date has been with the genetic resources of the common crops such as beets, sugarcane, cacao, coconut, coffee, tea, cotton, rubber and oil palm. Principle emphasis with regard to collection was put on the well-known species of these crops, but some related and wild species were also collected. Other types of projects have also been supported including in vitro research on cacao.

Palms, representing several genera, have potential not only as sources of new U.S. crops, but also for enhancing the current germplasm base of the existing ornamental palms. Hearts of palm are found in the world market as exotic vegetables and salad additions (NAS 1975). Hearts of palm can be produced in plantations from species of Bactris, Euterpe, Sabal, and Cocos. Edible palm oils can be derived from species in several palm genera including Elaeis and Cocos. The IBPGR has sponsored collection and conservation of some of these genera.

The African species (Smith 1976), Hibiscus sabdarifa (roselle) and Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf), are used for fiber in their native regions but may also have potential in the U.S. Forms of roselle produce edible fruits that can be made into jellies and drinks and also produce fiber. The wide use of synthetic fibers in the U.S. may limit the initial usefulness of these plants but their unknown potential warrants additional research.

CONCLUSIONS

Throughout the last 14 years the IBPGR has assisted with establishment of genetic resourcesprograms, fostered relationships and built up collaboration between institutes and individuals involved with genetic resources work. It has established a global base network for conservation of all major crops and data bases on the location of genetic resources, institutes holding specific species and related topics. Many minor and regionally important crops have also been conserved in this network. Potential new crops for the U.S. are most readily adapted from those already important in other areas of the world. The location and aquisition of genetic resources of these crops is an essential first step in new crops development.

REFERENCES

Table 1. Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) Centers, location, mandate crops and scope of involvement.z

Center Name and Location Crops, Activities and Focus
IRRI International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines (1960)y Rice; Global Collection, Research; Developing Countries
CIMMYT Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo, El Batan, Mexico (1964) Maize, wheat, triticale, barley; Global Collection, Research; Developing Countries, Latin America
IITA lnternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria (1965) Maize, rice, cowpea, sweet potato, yams, cassava; Global Collections, Research; Developing Countries, Sub-Saharan Africa
CIAT Centro Internacional de Agriculture Tropical, Calli, Colombia (1968) Cassava, beans, rice, pastures; Global Collection, Research; Latin America, Developing Countries
WARDA West African Rice Development Association, Monrovia, Liberia (1971) Rice; Research; West Africa
CIP International Potato Center, Lima, Peru (1972) Potato; Global Collection, Research; Latin America, Developing Countries
ICRISAT International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Hyderabad, India (1972) Chickpea, pigeonpea, pearl millet, sorghum, groundnut; Global Collection, Research, Developing Countries
ILRAD International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases Nairobi, Kenya (1974) Trypanosomiasis theileriosis; Animal Disease; Sub-Saharan Africa
IBPGR International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Rome, Italy (1974) Plant Generic Resources; Global
ILCA International Livestock Center for Attica, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (1974) Livestock Production Systems; Sub-Saharan Africa
IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, United States (1975) Food policy; Developing Countries
ICARDA International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Aleppo, Syria (1976) Wheat, barley, triticale, faba bean, lentil, chickpea, forages; Global Collection, Research; Developing Countries, North Africa, Middle East
ISNAR International Service for National Agricultural Research, The Hague, Netherlands (1980) National Research Systems; Developing Countries.
zCompiled from Plucknett et al. (1987) and CGIAR (1987).
yYear of establishment.


Table 2. Crops included in the Global Base Collection Network and the scope of inclusion.z

Crop group Species Common namey Scope of collection
Cereals Hordeum spp. Barley Global, European, African, Asian Regional
Zea spp. Maize European, Asian, New World
Pennisetum spp. Global
Eleusine spp. Global
Eragrostis spp. Other Indian Millets Regional Global
Panicum miliaceum Global
Setaria italica Global
Avena spp. Oats Global
Oryza sativa Rice, cultivated Global
Oryza spp. Rice, wild Global
Secale spp. Rye Global
Sorghum spp. Global
Triticum spp. Wheat, cultivated Global, Regional
Triticum spp. Wheat, wild Global
Food legumes Cicer spp. Chickpea Global
Vicia faba Faba bean Global
Arachis spp. Groundnut Global, Regional
Lens spp. Lentil Global
Lupinus spp. Lupin Global, European
Pisum spp. Pea Global, Regional
Phaseolus spp. Bean, cultivated Global, European
Phaseolus spp. Bean, wild Global
Cajanus spp. Pigeonpea Global
Glycine max Soybean Global
Glycine spp. Soybean, wild Global
Vigna spp. Bean, cultivated Global
Vigna spp. Bean, wild Global
Psophocarpus spp. Winged bean Global
Root crops Manihot spp. Cassava, seed Global
Solanum spp. Potato, seed Global
Ipomoea spp. Sweet potato, seed Global, Asian
Vegetables Allium spp. Global, Asian
Amaranthus spp. Global, Asian
Capsicum spp. Global
Cruciferae: (includes: Brassica carinata, B. oleracea, Raphanus, wild species) Global, East Asian
Oilseed, green manures (includes: B. campestris, B. juncea, B. napus, Sinapis alba) Global, East Asian
Vegetables, fodders (includes: B. campestris, B. juncea, B. napus) Global, East Asian
Lycopersicon spp. Tomato Global, Asian
Abelmoschus spp. Okra
Southeast Asian vegetables
Global
Regional
Cucurbitaceae (includes: Benincasa, Luffa, Momordica, Trichosanthes, Cucumis, Citrullus, Cucurbita) Global
Solanum melongena Eggplant Global
Industrial Beta spp. Beet Global, Mediterranean
Crops Gossypium spp. Cotton Global, Mediterranean
Saccarhum spp. Sugarcane Global
Nicotiana spp. Tobacco Mediterranean
Forages Legumes: Centrosema, Desmodium, Desmathus, Stylosanthes, Leucaena, Lotononis, Macroptilium, Zornia, Neonotonia, Trifolium Global, African
Grasses: Cynodon, Cenchrus, Digitaria, Pennisetum, Paspalum, Urochloa Global
Root Crops (field coll.) Manihot spp. Cassava Global, Asian
Ipomoea spp. Sweet potato Global, Asian Pacific
Fruits (field coll.) Musa spp. Banana Global, Asian and Pacific Asia
Citrus spp. East, South Asian, Mediterranean, African, North and Latin American
Industrial (field coll.) Theobroma spp. Cocoa Global
Saccharum spp. Sugarcane Global
zModified from FBPGR (1988).
yCommon name given for clarification.


Table 3. Publications of International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) relevant to the genetic resources of new crops.
Directories of Germplasm Collections
Food legumes (except soyabean), 1987.
Root and Tuber Crops (Aroids, Cassava, Potato, Sweet Potato, Yams and others). Second Edition. 1986
Cereals: Sorghum and Millets. 1981.
Vegetables. 1982.
Industrial Crops (Beet, Coffee, Cotton, Oil Palm and Rubber). 1987.
Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruits and Tree Nuts. 1984.
Temperate Fruits and Tree Nuts. 1987.
Forages (Grasses, Legumes, etc.). 1984.
Descriptor Lists
List Year List Year
Allium 1982 Oca 1982
Almond 1985 Panicum miliaceum and P. sumatrense 1985
Amaranth 1981 Papaya 1988
Apple 1982 Pearl millet 1981
Apricot 1985 Phaseolus acutifolius 1985
Banana 1984 Phaseolus coccineus 1983
Beet 1980 Phaseolus lunatus 1982
Cassava 1983 Phaseolus vulgaris 1982
Cocoa 1981 Pigeonpea 1981
Coconut 1978 Quinoa 1981
Colocasia 1980 Setaria italica and S. pumila 1985
Cucurbita 1983 Tropical fruits 1980
Echinochloa millet 1983 Vigna aconitifolia and V. trilobata 1985
Faba bean 1985 Vigna mungo and V. radiata 1985
Finger millet 1985 Winged bean 1982
Forage grass 1985 Bambarra groundnut 1987
Forage legumes 1985 Brassica campestris 1987
Grape 1983 Cashew 1986
Kodo millet 1983 Xanthosoma 1988
Lupin 1981 Brassica and Raphanus 1988
Mango 1988 Citrus 1988
Not yet published
Brassica juncea Phaseolus (wild species)
Brassica napus Raphanus sativus
Brassica oleracea Vigna umbelata and V. angularis
Eggplant Oil palm
Jute Tepary bean
Pepper

Last update February 12, 1997 by aw