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Midwest Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers 1998

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Peppers

Varieties* Season Fruit Shape Comments
Acapulco Early Blocky Vigorous plant
King Arthur Early 3-4 lobes, blocky Resistant to strain 2 of bacterial spot
Merlin Early Blocky  
Sentinel Early-Main Blocky Resistant to strains 1,2 of bacterial spot
Vidi Early-Main 4 lobes, long Good for red peppers
Boynton Bell Main Blocky Resistant to strains 1,2,3 of bacterial spot
Commandant Main Long blocky Resistant to strains 1,2,3 of bacterial spot
Bell Captain Main Blocky Large fruit
Bell King Main Long blocky  
Camelot X3R Main Long blocky Resistant to strains 1,2,3 of bacterial spot
Enterprise Main Long blocky  
Jupiter Main Blocky  
Marengo Main 3 lobes, somewhat blocky Yellow at maturity
Ranger Main Blocky  
Green Bells for trial: X3R Aladdin, X3R Wizard (both with some resistance to bacterial spot)
Colored Bells for trial: Gold Finch (yellow); Orange Grande, Oriole (orange); Sweet Chocolate, Blackbird (brown to black)
Banana peppers/cubanelles: Sweet Banana (turns red at maturity); Key Largo (cubanelle, orange-red at maturity)
Hot Peppers: Hungarian Hot Wax, Jalapeno Mitla, Long Thick Red, Ring of Fire, Copacabana (yellow)

Spacing

Rows: 2 1/2 to 4 ft. apart. Plants: 12 to 18 in. apart in row or, planting in double/twin rows with 18 in. between row and 12 in. between plants. Raised beds and trickle irrigation recommended.

Growing Transplants and Transplanting

Fairly large, slightly hardened 6-9 week old plants are the best transplants. These should be grown in greenhouses having 75°F daytime temperatures. Germination is rapid between 65 to 85°F, very slow at 60°F, and ceases below 55°F. A few days at 60 to 65°F are sufficient for hardening before transplanting.

Transplants are often grown by seeding directly in plant-growing flats and thinning to about 4 sq. in. per plant when the first true leaf appears. Larger cell sizes (No. 50 or 72) work well to promote early yield, with smaller cell sizes (No. 100 or 120) recommended for plants to be grown for the remainder of the season. Direct-seeding in outdoor hotbeds or spotting seedlings in the plant growing flats also produce good transplants. Large-scale growers often use plants grown outdoors in southern states. An ounce of seed produces 1,500 to 2,000 good plants, and 4 oz. provides enough plants for an acre.

Set plants in the field when frost danger has passed, when the soil has warmed, and when the average daily temperature reaches 65°F. It does not pay to rush the season by planting too early. Raised beds and plastic mulch are recommended.

Fertilizing

Lime: To maintain a soil pH of 6.0 to 6.8.

Preplant: N, for soils with more than 3% organic matter and following soybeans, alfalfa or a grass-legume hay crop apply 50 lb. N per acre. For soils with less than 3% organic matter and the above rotation, apply 80 lb. N per acre. For peppers following corn, rye, oats, wheat, or a vegetable crop, apply 70 to 80 lb. N per acre. P2O5, 0 to 150 lb. per acre; K2O, 0 to 200 lb. per acre. Adjust according to soil type, previous management, and soil test results for your state. For transplants, a starter solution at the rate of 1 cup (8 oz.) per plant is recommended. See p. 2 for fertilizer type suggestions. If the transplant flat receives a heavy fertilizer feeding just prior to setting, the starter solution can be eliminated.

Sidedress N: Apply 40-50 lb. N per acre in a band to either side of the row 3 to 4-weeks after transplanting. Urea or calcium nitrate is recommended. If plastic mulch is used, this sidedressing can be skipped. Peppers are susceptible to calcium deficiency even when adequate levels of calcium are present in the soil. This disorder is called blossom end rot. It often occurs under conditions of inadequate or excessive watering and/or excessive N fertilization with an ammonium source. Where the soil pH has been adjusted to 6.0 or above, additional soil applied calcium does not correct the disorder. Addition of a foliar spray directly to the developing fruit may reduce the incidence of blossom end rot. Use calcium nitrate at the rate of 10-15 lb. per 100 gallons of water per acre.

Diseases Controlled Treatment Comments
Anthracnose Apply Maneb 80 (2 to 3 lb. per acre) or Manex (2 to 3 pt. per acre) at first sign of disease. Repeat at 7-10 day intervals. Use disease-free seed and/or transplants. Practice a 3-4 year crop rotation. 7 day PHI.
Bacterial spot Use resistant varieties wherever possible. Check seed suppliers for newly released resistant varieties. Use Agri-strep (1 lb. per 100 gal. water) to protect seedlings in seedbeds. Repeat at 5 day intervals.
or
Use disease-free seed and/or transplants. Agri-strep cannot be applied to plants outside of the seedbed.
  Use copper sprays to reduce the rate of bacterial spread in the field. The combination of a copper fungicide plus maneb will increase the effectiveness of the application. Use disease-free seed and/or transplants. Avoid consecutive seasons with peppers or tomatoes in the same field. Avoid working in the fields when plants are wet.
Phytophthora blight Avoid waterlogged root zones throughout the season. Grow peppers in well drained fields. Planting on raised beds will increase soil drainage. Rotate infested fields with non-host crops for several years.
  Use resistant varieties that are becoming available for commercial production. Check with seed sales representatives. Water management is of primary importance for Phytophthora control.
  Treat soil with Ridomil Gold EC at 1 pt. per acre (broadcast; use less for band application) before transplanting. Subsequent directed sprays may be needed.
or
Fungicides will not be effective if peppers are planted in poorly drained fields with a history of the disease.
  Maneb 80 at 2 to 3 lb. per acre or Manex (2 to 3 pt. per acre) at 7-10 day intervals. Kocide DF at 2 to 3 lb. per acre is labeled for use against bacterial spot, but may be effective against Phytophthora. 7 day PHI.
Root-knot nematode Methyl bromide or Sodium methyl dithiocarbamate or Vydate L. Sample fields during growing season for plant parasitic nematodes before planting. Avoid fields with high numbers of root-knot nematode Methyl bromide and sodium methyl dithiocarbamate give best results when nematode populations are moderate to high. Vydate gives adequate control when nematode populations are low to moderate.
Herbicide* Treatment** Comments
Preemergence    
Dacthal 75WP    
  6 lb. on light-colored soils (less than 2% organic matter), 14 lb. on darker-colored soils in at least 50 gal. water per acre. Apply 4-6 wks. after transplanting. Use 50-mesh or larger screens. Not effective on muck soils or other high organic soils.
Devrinol 50DF 2 lb. per acre on light colored soils (less than 2% organic matter), 4 lb. on other soils. Incorporate Devrinol 1 to 2 in. before seeding or transplanting. After harvest or prior to planting succeeding crops a deep moldboard or disc plowing operation must be done. Do not seed alfalfa, small grains, sorghum, corn or lettuce for 12 months after using Devrinol.
Treflan HFP 1 pt. per acre on light-colored soils (less than 2% organic matter), 2 pt. on darker soils. Apply before transplanting and incorporate immediately.
Prefar 4E 5 qt. per acre on light-colored sandy soils (less than 1% organic matter), 6 qt. on other soils. Apply before planting and incorporate 1-2 inches.
Command 4E 0.5 pt. per acre on light soils to 2 pt. per acre on heavy soils. Signing of a liability waiver is required. Command volatilizes and drifts readily; follow precautions on label. Apply before transplanting and immediately incorporate to a depth of 1 inch. May cause temporary bleaching of pepper foliage. Pepper varieties vary in tolerance to Command. Not for banana peppers.
Postemergence    
Poast 1.5E 1 to 1.5 pt. per acre plus 1 qt. COC per acre. Apply to actively growing grass. Maximum of 4.5 pt. per acre per season. 20 day PHI.
Gramoxone Extra 2.5E 1.5 pt. per acre plus 1 qt. COC or non-ionic surfactant per 25 gal. spray solution. DIRECTED SPRAY ONLY. Apply to emerged weeds between crop rows. Do not allow spray to drift onto crop.
Stale Seedbed    
Gramoxone Extra 2.5E 2 to 3 pt. per acre plus 1 pt. nonionic surfactant per 100 gal. spray solution. Apply to emerged weeds before transplanting crop. RUP.
Roundup Ultra (4 lb./gal.) 2 to 3 qt. per acre. Apply to emerged weeds before planting crop. Wait 3 days before planting.
*For specific weeds controlled by each herbicide, check table on page 23.
**Rates given are for overall coverage. For band treatment, reduce amounts according to the portion of acre treated.
Insects Controlled Treatment Comments
European corn borer and Flea beetles Orthene 75S at 1 lb. per acre.
or
Also controls aphids. 7 day PHI.
Threshold
Treat at 5-day intervals when peppers are fruiting if blacklight trap catches exceed 5 to 10 moths per night.
Ambush 2EC at 6.4 to 12.8 fl. oz., or 25WP at 6.4 to 12.8 oz. per acre, Pounce 3.2EC at 4 to 8 fl. oz. per acre.
or
For bell peppers only. Do not exceed 1.6 lb. a.i. per acre per season. Use higher rate for European corn borer. 3 day PHI.
Baythroid 2E at 1.6 to 2.8 fl. oz. per acre.
or
Do not exceed 16.8 fl. oz. per acre per season. Allow 7 days between applications. 7 day PHI.
  Admire 2F at 16 to 32 fl. oz. per acre.
or
21 day PHI. Do not exceed 0.5 lb. a.i. of Admire or Provado per acre per season. Flea beetles only.
  Asana XL at 5.8 to 9.6 fl. oz. per acre.
or
Flea beetles only. Do not exceed 0.35 lb. a.i. per acre per season. 7 day PHI.
  Rotenone according to label directions. 1 day PHI. Flea beetles only.
Aphids Conserve natural enemies. Limiting the use of insecticides will conserve predators and parasites that help keep aphid populations under control.
Aphid transmitted viruses cannot be controlled by killing aphids with insecticides. Admire 2F at 16 to 32 fl. oz. per acre.
or
21 day PHI. Do not exceed 0.5 lb. a.i. of Admire or Provado per acre per season. Will not control viruses.
Provado 1.6F at 3.75 fl. oz. per acre.
or
Do not exceed 18.75 fl. oz. per acre per season. Allow 5 days between applications. 0 day PHI.
  Orthene 75S at 0.6 to 1.3 lb. per acre.
or
7 day PHI.
  Metasystox-R at 2 pt. per acre.
or
Do not apply more than twice per season. 3 day PHI.
  Dimethoate at 0.75 to 1 pt. per acre.
or
Use sufficient water to assure good coverage of plants. 0 day PHI.
  Lannate LV at 1.5 pt., or 90SP at 0.5 lb. per acre.
or
3 day PHI.
  Thiodan, Endosulfan, or Phaser 50WP at 1 to 2 lb. or 3EC at 0.6 to 1.3 qt. per acre.
or
Use sufficient water to assure good coverage of plants. 4 day PHI, 1 day if less than 1 lb. applied. Maximum of 2 applications per season.
  M-Pede at 1.25 fl. oz. per 50 gal. water. 0 day PHI. Must contact aphids to be effective
Whiteflies Admire 2F at 16 to 32 fl. oz. per acre.
or
21 day PHI. Do not exceed 0.5 lb. a.i. of Admire or Provado per acre per season.
  Provado 1.6F at 3.75 fl. oz. per acre.
or
Do not exceed 18.75 fl. oz. per acre per season. Allow 5 days between applications. 0 day PHI.
  Align or Neemix according to label directions.
or
0 day PHI.
  M-Pede at 1.25 fl. oz. per 50 gals. of water. 0 day PHI. Use sufficient spray to wet all infested plant surfaces. Must contact whiteflies to be effective.


Indiana CropMAP     NewCROP

last update Wednesday, October 07, 1998 by aw