Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Bean, Common bean, Caraota, Feijao, French bean, Kidney bean, Haricot bean,
Field bean, Poroto, Snap bean, String bean, Frijol, Wax bean
Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.
- Folk Medicine
- Yields and Economics
- Biotic Factors
- Chemical Analysis of Biomass Fuels
Common bean is most widely cultivated of all beans in temperate regions, and
widely cultivated in semitropical regions. In temperate regions the green
immature pods are cooked and eaten as a vegetable. Immature pods are marketed
fresh, frozen or canned, whole, cut or french-cut. Mature ripe beans,
variously called navy beans, white beans, northern beans, or pea beans, are
widely consumed. In lower latitudes, dry beans furnish a large portion of the
protein needs of low and middle class families. In some parts of the tropics
leaves are used as a pot-herb, and to a lesser extent the green-shelled beans
are eaten. In Java, young leaves are eaten as a salad. After beans are
harvested, straw is used for fodder.
Beans are said to be used for acne,bladder, burns, cardiac, carminative,
depurative, diabetes, diarrhea, diuretic, dropsy, dysentery, eczema, emolient,
hiccups, itch, kidney, resolvent, rheumatism, sciatica, and tenesmus.
Beans are a high nutritive, relatively low-cost protein food. Green snap beans
contain 6.2% protein, 0.2% fat, and 63% carbohydrate. Analysis of a sample of
dried beans marketed under the name 'Rajmah' gave the following values:
moisture, 12.0%; protein, 22.9%; fat, 1.3%; carbohydrates, 60.6%; and minerals,
3.2%; Ca, 260 mg; P, 410 mg; and iron, 5.8 mg.; 346 calories/100 g. The vitamin
contents of the dried beans are: thiamine, 0.6; riboflavin, 0.2; nicotinic
acid, 2.5; and ascorbic acid, 2.0 mg/100. Analysis of dried beans from another
source yielded: Na, 43.2; K, 1160; Ca, 180; Mg, 183; Fe, 6.6; Cu, 0.61; P, 309;
S, 166; and Cl, 1.8 mg/100 g. Beans also contain I (1.4 mg/100 g), Mn (1.8
mg/100 g), and arsenic (0.03 mg/100 g). Raw immature pods of green, and yellow
or wax snap beans are reported to contain per 100 g, 32 and 27 calories, 90.1
and 91.4 g moisture, 1.9 and 1.7 g protein, 0.2 g fat, 7.1 and 6.0 g total
carbohydrate, 1.0 g fiber, and 0.7 g ash, respectively. Raw pods of kidney
beans contain (per 100 g edible portion): 150 calories, 60.4% moisture, 9.8 g
protein, 0.3 g fat, 27.8 g total carbohydrate, 2.3 g fiber, 1.7 g ash, 59 mg
Ca, 213 mg P, 3.6 mg Fe, 10 mg vitamin A, 0.38 mg thiamine, 0.12 mg riboflavin,
1.5 mg niacin, 7 mg ascorbic acid. Raw dried mature seeds of white, red, and
pinto beans are reported to contain per 100 g: 340, 343, and 349 calories,
10.9, 10.4, and 8.3% moisture, 22.3, 22.5, and 22.9 g protein, 1.6, 1.5, and
1.2 g fat, 61.3, 61.9, and 63.7 g total carbohydrate, 4.3, 4.2, and 4.3 g
fiber, 3.9, 3.7, and 3.9 g ash, respectively. Whole seeds of kidney beans
contain (per 100 g): 86 mg Ca, 247 mg P, 716 mg Fe, 5 mg vitamin A, 0.54 mg
thiamine, 0.19 mg riboflavin, 2.1 mg niacin, 3 mg ascorbic acid. Whole seeds
cooked contain: 141 calories, 68.0% moisture, 5.9 g protein, 5.7 g fat, 17.9 g
total carbohydrate, 1.1 g fiber, 2.5 g ash, 46 mg Ca, 120 mg P, and 1.9 mg Fe.
Raw leaves contain (per 100 g): 36 calories, 86.8% moisture, 3.6 g protein, 0.4
g fat, 6.6 g total carbohydrate, 2.8 g fiber, 2.6 g ash, 2 74 mg Ca, 75 mg P,
9.2 mg Fe, 3,230 mg b-carotene equivalent, 0.18 mg thiamine, 0.06 mg
riboflavin, 1.3 mg niacin, 110 mg ascorbic acid. After harvest, plants can be
fed to cattle, sheep, and horses. It is satisfactory as a part of the roughage
when fed with good hay and is comparable to corn and sorghum fodder in
nutritive value. Analysis of a sample gave the following values: moisture,
10.9; protein, 6.1; fat, 1.4; N-free extract, 34.1; fiber, 40.1; ash, 7.4; Ca,
1.7; P, 0.1; K, 1.0; digestible protein, 3.0; and total digestible nutrients,
45.2%; nutritive ratio, 14.1. After pod removal, silage may be prepared from
green vines. Dehydrated bean vine meal prepared from green plants after pod
removal is comparable to alfalfa meal as a vitamin supplement for chicks. It
contains protein, 18.3; digestible protein, 12.3; and total digestible
nutrients, 46.3%; nutritive ratio, 2.8. Meal made from vines with mature
leaves is inferior in quality. Leaves contain carotene (178.8 mg/100 g),
thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, folic acid, and pantothenic acid. They
contain also a quercetin glycoside. The hull is said to yield 0.13% rubber.
The leaves, are said to contain allantoin.
The roots are reported to cause giddiness in human beings and animals. Seeds
are reported to contain trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors. After eating only
a few raw beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) or dried beans (P.
coccineus), three boys, 4 to 8 years old rapidly developed symptoms of
poisoning, notably sickness and diarrhea. Phasin, a toxalbumin destroyed by
cooking, was considered responsible. All boys had normal aminotransferase
values and parenteral treatment with fluid and electrolytes let to complete
recovery in 12 to 24 hours (Haidvogl et al., 1979).
Highly polymorphic species; annual herb, erect and bushy, 2060 cm tall, or
twining with stems 23 m long; with a taproot and nitrogenous nodules;
(although the germinating bean has a tap root, adventitious roots usually
emerge 12 days after germination, to dominate the tap root which remains 1015
cm long); leaves alternate, green or purple, trifoliolate, stipulate,
petiolate, a marked pulvinus at base; leaflets ovate, entire; acuminate, 615
cm long, 311 cm wide; flowers in lax, axillary few-flowered (12) racemes,
zygomorphic, variegated, white, pink, or purplish, ca 1 cm long; pods slender,
green, yellow, black, or purple, cylindrical or flat, 820 cm long, 11.5 cm
wide; seeds 46-(12), usually glabrous, sometimes puberulent, beak prominent;
seeds white, red, tan, purple, grey or black, often variegated, reniform,
oblong or globose, up to 1.5 cm long, endosperm absent; 100 seeds weigh 1067
g, depending on cv; germination phanerocotylar.
More than 14,000 cvs are recorded; the major repository and distributor is CIAT
in Cali, Colombia. In the United States, they are grouped mainly into
early-maturing bush types and later-maturing pole types. Dry-shelled beans are
grouped into the following four types: (1) red kidney beans, 1.5 cm or more
long, important in Latin America; (2) medium field beans, 11.2 cm long,
pinkish-buff with brown spots, grown extensively in the United States as
'Pinto'; (3) marrow beans, 11.5 cm long, as 'Yellow Eye'; and (4) pea or navy
beans, 8 mm or less long, grown extensively in California. Black beans are
gaining in importance in some areas. In Latin America and Africa, regional
preferences are strong for seed-coat color and brilliance. Venezuela and
Guatemala favor black-seeded beans; Colombia and Honduras, red; Peru, cream or
tan; Brazil, black or tan. Growth form in Ph. vulgaris and other
Phaseolus spp. depends on two factorsnumber of nodes produced
(oligonodal vs. polynodal) and internode length (long vs. short). Three
definite forms are produced for cultivation: (1) polynodal with long internodesclimber; (2) polynodal with short internodesindeterminant dwarf; and (3)
oligonodal with short internodesdeterminant dwarf. Two distinct leaf-size
grades can also be distinguished in combination with these. With the range of
seed sizes and shapes plus testa colors the possible range of distinct types is
enormous. Snapbeans cv 'Mild White Giant' is reportedly tolerant to "adverse
conditions", 'OSU 2065', 'Purley King' (British peabean requiures temperature
of 12013°C at soil depth of 10 cm), 'SRS 1884' to cool weather, 'Royalty'
to cold soil, 'Longval' to drought, 'Alabama Al', 'Ashley Wax', 'Choctaw',
'Cooper Wax', 'Logan', and 'Longval' to heat, 'Pacer' to short season, and
'Royalty' to wet soil. Among dry beans cv 'Criolla' is reportedly tolerant to
heat and 'Bonita', 'Borinquen', and 'Criolla' to tropical conditions. Assigned
to the Middle and South American Centers of Diversity, common bean or cvs
thereof is reported to exhibit tolerance to aluminum, bacteria, disease,
drought, herbicide, hydrogen flouride, high pH, laterite, low pH, manganese,
peat, photoperiod, smog, SO2, virus, and water excess. Pathogen tolerances are
surveyed in Horsfal et al. (1972). "Perhaps the most significant event in
recent bean breeding is Honma's interspecific cross, P. vulgaris x P.
acutifolius, accomplished via tissue culture. This hybrid transferred the
tepary's tolerance to Xanthosoma phaseoli, the casual agent of common
bean blight, to the Great Northern cultivar of P. vulgaris. Honma had
been unable to find a useful level of tolerance in other beans, and progeny
from his interspecific hybrid made possible the development of blight tolerance
in other Phaseolus cultivars around the world." (Nabhan and Felger,
1978). (x = ll, 2n = 22)
Common beans are native to the New World, probably Central Mexico and
Guatemala. They were taken to Europe by the Spaniards and Portuguese who also
took them to Africa and other parts of the Old World. Now they are widely
cultivated in the tropics, subtropics and temperate regions. Roughly 30% of
world production is in Latin America. They are less known in India, where
other pulses are preferred.
Beans tolerate most environmental conditions in tropical and temperate zones,
but do poorly in very wet tropics where rain causes disease and flower drop.
Rain is undesirable when dry seeds are harvested. Frost kills plant. There
are both short-day and day-neutral cvs. Excessive water will injure plants in
a few hours, but some black-seeded cvs will grow well in standing water. Beans
grow best in well-drained, sandy loam, silt loam or clay loam soils, rich in
organic content, but are sensitive to concentrations of Al, B, Mn, and Na.
Below pH 5.2 Mn toxicity may be a problem. In calcareous soils, zinc
deficiencies can be serious in sandy acid soils, Mg and Mo deficiencies may
arise. At EC (conductivity) 1500 (EC of saturation extract) garden bean yields
are decreased by 10%, by 25% at EC of 2000, and by 50% at EC of 3500. French
or snap beans seem more sensitive to Na than many other cvs. Temperatures of
-5° to -6°C are harmful at germination, -2° to -3°C at flowering
and -3° to -4°C at fruiting. Some cvs withstand short frosts as low as
-3°C. The optimum monthly temperature for growth is 15.6°C21.1°C,
the maximum ca 27°.C, the minimum ca 10°C. Blossum-drop is serious above
30°C, and can completely prevent seed set above 35°C. Beans are
traditionally a subtropical or temperate crop. In the tropics they are
normally found in montane valleys (8002,000 m). Very few beans are grown in
hot humid tropics where cowpeas fare better. Five different writers give five
different pH ranges. Our computer program reported 4.28.7; average of 144
cases was 6.4. Other values were 5.56.8, 5.57.5, 6.07.0, and 6.07.5.
Ranging from Boreal Moist to Wet through Tropical Very Dry to Wet Forest Life
Zones, common bean is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 0.942.9 dm
(mean of 217 cases = 12.8), annual mean temperature of 5.7°28.5°C (mean
of 216 cases = 19.3), and pH of 4.28.7 (mean of 144 cases = 64).
In temperate areas, seed should be planted about the same time as corn, when
soil has become warm. Germination is rapid at soil temperatures above 18°C.
In pure stands, bush cvs give good yields at 30 by 30 cm spacings, but wider
spacing facilitates weeding. Pole beans are usually planted 46 seeds in hills
spaced about 1 m apart at a seeding rate of nearly 80 kg/ha. Seed rates are
20115 kg/ha depending on the cv, seed size, and width of row; 'Red Kidney',
'Marrow', and 'Yellow Eye' at 75100 kg/ha; 'Pea Beans', 'Black Turtle Soup',
at 3040 kg/ha; row widths 7075 or 80 cm. Some pole beans are sown at rates
as low as 25 kg/ha. Seed of good quality is essential for production of dry
beans. Susceptibility to diseases, mechanical injury, frost damage, and wet
weather damage at harvest time, and cracked seedcoats should be considered.
With a corn, bean or beat drill with removable plates, beans are usually
planted 58 cm deep, deep enough to give good coverage and sufficient moisture
to promote fast germination and growth. Plants should be cultivated to control
weeds; care should be taken late in the season to avoid injuring roots
extending out between the rows just beneath soil surface. Inoculation of seed
with nitrogen-fixing bacteria is unnecessary for dry beans. Beans should be
rotated with other crops to maintain high yields and quality and to reduce the
hazard of diseases which may survive in the soil or on plant refuse in the
soil. In the tropics beans are often interplanted with such crops as coffee,
corn, cotton, sweet potatoes, and little or no fertilization is employed,
although the plant does respond to nitrogen. Still, as much as 25 MT/ha
barnyard manure is recommended. In the US applications of nitrogen and
phosphate are applied. Irrigation is beneficial in semiarid regions, with
overhead preferred to flood irrigation. Mixtures of cvs are often sown. In
Latin America, ca 70% of the beans are interplanted with corn. Grown alone,
they are planted at 200,000250,000 plants per hectare in 50 cm rows with 510
cm between seed. Bush beans are planted 30 x 30 or 5060 x 510 cm, the latter
permitting easier cultivation. Latin American bean production is mainly on
marginal soil, nearly always with P deficiency, commonly with N problems as
well; neither credit nor fertilizer are too often available.
Beans mature very quickly and green beans may be harvested 46 weeks after
sowing. In early snap bean cvs, harvest begins in 78 weeks, 1 or 2 weeks
after flowering. Beans should be picked every 34 days. Bush beans mature
over a short time; pole beans continue to bear for a long time. Dry beans
should be harvested when most pods are fully mature and have turned color. To
minimize shatter, harvesters should not shake the vines. The cutter consists
of 2 broad blades set to cut 2 adjacent rows about 5 cm below the ground. Then
prongs pull plants from both rows into one windrow in wet weather; plants are
forked into field stacks ca 1.3 m in diameter and 23 m high that are supported
by a center stake. In the third world, beans are usually hand harvested, or
manually gathered and windrowed. Plants are pulled, dried, and threshed;
sometimes beans are handshelled.
Yields vary widely with cv, culture and region. In the United States yields
for dried beans average 1,0001,500 kg/ha; for Mexican and Colombian hybrids,
up to 2,500 kg/ha; in Mauritius, 2501,500 kg/ha, depending on cv; in Egypt,
500 kg/ha; in Kenya and Malawi, 3001,000 kg/ha; in Great Britain, 1,200 kg/ha.
Yields of immature snap beans average about 4.5 MT/ha, but higher yields have
been reported. Maximum reported experimental yields of dry beans exceed 5.5
MT/ha (bush beans). At CIAT, bush bean yields of 4.5 MT/ha and trellis-bean
yields of 5.8 MT/ha were reported for a 100-200-day-growth cycle. Association
with corn reduced such yields to ca 2 MT/ha. In 1975, the world harvest was
13,227,000 MT of dry beans from 24,715,000 ha for an average yield of 535
kg/ha. Yields were highest (2,374 kg/ha) in the Netherlands. Asia had the
largest hectarage (11,697,000 ha) followed by South America (4,636,000 ha) and
Africa (3,066,000 ha). India with yields of only 313 kg/ha is estimated to
have produced 2,500,000 MT; China, with 937 kg/ha, 2,399,000 MT; Brazil, 563
kg/ha, 2,280,000 MT; and Mexico, with 801 kg/ha, 1,202,000 MT. By contrast the
US with yields of 1332 kg/ha produced 780,000 MT (FAO 1976). Common beans of
various types are nearly cosmopolitan, except in tropical Asia, where native
pulses are preferred. England imports haricot beans from Japan, Chile, US,
Ethiopia, Mozambique, East Africa, and Malawi. In 1969, Japan imported about
18,000 MT from the US, and Israel, and the Philippines imported about 1450 MT
(dry beans). Latin America, producing twice as much as the US, still imports
beans. The US production in 1969 was about 800,000 MT (dry beans) from about
600,000 ha bringing about $0.17/kg. Nearly 150,000 MT fresh beans were
produced from 36,000 hectares at $0.28/kg for immediate consumption. For the
processing industry, 500,000 MT at $0.11/kg were produced from 95,000 hectares.
The major bean-growing areas in the US are: Michigan (ca 40%), California,
Col,orado, Idaho, New York, and Wyoming.
Rather in contrast with what we expect from cereals, CIAT (Bean Program/ 1977)
suggested that in dry beans "large vegetative structures lead to increased
yields if lodging resistance can be found." Hence the more bean, the more
biomass residue. "Increased dry matter production (correlation with yield r =
0.96) and a relatively constant harvest index (r = 0.28) were associated with
this yield trend. In 'Pornillo Sintetico' at CIAT the harvest index (ratio
YIELD:TOTAL DM) ranged from 5262% averaging 57%, with highest yields of 4.1
MT/ha associated with total DM yields of 7 MT/ha, indicating a maximum residue
of ca 3 MT/ha. (CIAT/1977). Similar studies at Palmira (CIAT/1978) showed, in
a bad year, bean yields of 750 to 1860 kg/ha with total DM yields (minus leaves
and petioles) of 1160 2770 kg/ha, obviously much lower. Of 11 cvs studied at
Popoyan, P590 fixed most N, at the rate of 73.7 kg/ha, the lowest was P 243 at
12.2 kg/ha (CIAT/1977). Per plant N-fixation at Quilichao ranged from 820 g
in a study of 31 cvs (CIAT/1979). Adams (1980) and Sandsted (1980) tabulate
the energy inputs in dry bean and snap bean production, respectively. For dry
beans in Michigan (nonirrigated) with a yield of 1,176 kg/ha, with a kcal value
of 4,092,480, inputs were 3,131,842 kcals, 720,000 for machinery, 863,106 for
gasoline, 643,500 for N, 168,000 for P, 89,600 for K, 952 for lime, 179,320 for
seeds, 34,423 for insecticides, 391,647 for herbicides, 38,258 for
transportation, and 3,036 for seed treatment chemicals. Irrigate dry bean
yields of 2,147 kg/ha in California were equivalent to 7,331,868 kcals, barely
more than inputs of 6,965,792 diesel being biggest at 2,627,617 kcals, N being
second at 1,254,110, machinery at 720,000, irrigation at 692,500, gasoline at
627,567, herbicides at 336,697, seed at 328,400, insecticides at 172,082,
transportation at 93,635, P at 62,400, and seed treatment at 50,784. These had
positive energetic returns of 1.31 and 1.05 kcal output/kcal input
respectively, compare to a negative ratio for snapbeans of 0.345. The largest
input was for diesel at 1,392,508 kcal/ha, followed by machinery at 900,000,
herbicides at 729,343, seeds at 672,000, N at 386,100, P at 246,000, fungicides
at 110,347, K at 88,000, transportation at 61,089, electricity at 28,630, and
lime at 9,465. With snapbean yields of 4,995 kg/ha, the protein yield was only
95 kg/ha, only 1/3 to 1/4 the protein yield of dry beans, and the kcal
equivalent was only 1,595,319 kcals/ha, also about 1/4 to 1/3 that of dry beans
Flowers are self-fertilized. Many diseases are caused by fungi, bacteria and
viruses in beans throughout the world. In Latin America the principal fungal
diseases are rust, anthracnose, angular leaf spot, web blight and various root
rots. The chief bacterial diseases are bacterial blight and halo blight; chief
viral diseases are bean common mosaic and bean golden mosaic. Following
organisms are recorded from beans: Alternaria atrans, A. brassicae, A.
phaseoli-vulgaris, A. tenuis, A. tenuissima, Aphanomyces euteiches, Aristastoma
oeconomicum, Ascochyta boltshauseri, A. phaseolorum, A. pisi, A. sojaecola,
Ashbya gossypii, Aspergillus ochraceus, Botrydiplodia theobromae, Botrytis
cinerea, Brachysporium pisi, Cercospora canescens, C. columnaris, C. cruenta,
C. phaseoli, C. phaseolina, C. phaseolorum, C. vanderysti, Chaetomium
cochliodes, Choanephora cucurbitarum, Cladosporium fulvum, C. herbarum, C.
phaseoli, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, C. truncatum, Corticium
microsclerotia, C. solani, Corynespora cassiicola, Cylindro-carpon radicicola,
Dactuliophora tarrii, Diaporthe arctii, D. sojae, Dothiorella phaseoli, Elsinoe
phaseoli, Epicoccum neglectum, E. purpurascens, Erysiphe polygoni, E. pisi,
Fusarium acuminatum, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. martii, F. martii-phaseoli,
F. oxysporum, F. poae, F. sambucinum, F. solani, Gloeosporium lindemuthianum,
Glomerella lindemuthianum, Helicobasidium purpuream, Helminthosporium carbonum,
Hyalodendron album, Isariopsis griseola, I. laxa, Leptosphaeria phaseolorum,
Leveillula taurica, Macrophomina phaseoli, Macrosporium commune, M. phaseoli,
Microsphaeria diffusa, Mycosphaerella cruenta, M. pinodes, M. sojae,
Myrothecium roridum, Nematospora coryli, N. phaseoli, Oidium balsamii, O.
erysiphoides, Ophiobolus graminis, Ovularia phaseoli, Parodiella
perisporioides, Pellicularia filamentosa, Penicillium cyclopium, Periconia
byssoides, Phaeoisariopsis griseola, Phakopsora vignae, Phoma subcircinata,
Phyllachora phaseoli, Phyllosticta phaseolina, Phytomonas medicaginis var.
phaseolicola, Phymatotrichum omnivorum, Phytophthora parasitica, Ph.
cactorum, Ph. megosperma, Pleosphaerulina phaseolina, P. sojaecola, Pleospora
herbarum, Pseudoplea trifolii, Pullularia pullulans, Pythium anandrun, P.
acanthium, P. aphanidermatum, P. artotrogus, P. debaryanum, P. helicoides, P.
intermedium, P. irregulare P. myriotylum, P. oligandrum, P. pulchrum, P.
rostratum, P. salpingosporum, P. spinosum, P. splendens, P. ultimum, P. vexans,
Ramlaria deusta, R. phaseolina, Rhizobium phaseoli, Rhizoctonia microsclerotia,
Rh. solani, Rhizopus stolonifer, Sclerotinia fructicola, S. fuckelinan, S.
homeocarpon, S. libertiana, S. minor, S. sclerotiorum, Sclerotium bataticola,
S. rolfsii, Sphaerella phaseolicola, Stagonspora (stagonosporopsis) hortensis,
Thielaviopsis basicola, Uromyces aloes, U. appendiculatus, U. fabae, U.
phaseoli, U. phaseolorum, U. viciae-fabae, Vermicularia truncata, and
Verticillium alboatrum. Bacteria causing diseases in beans include:
Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus lathyri, Bacterium carotovora, B. fascians,
B. medicaginis var. phaseolicola, B. phaseoli, B. rubefaciens,
Corynebacterium fasciens, Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas cannabina, Ps.
cyamopsicola, Ps. flectens, Ps. marginalis, Ps. medicaginis var.
phaseolicola, Ps. syringae, Xanthomonas phaseoli var. fuscans,
and X. vignicola. Common beans are parasitized by Striga
hermonthica. Viruses isolated from common beans include: abutilon mosaic,
alfalfa mosaic, alsike clover mosaic, Argentina sunflower, asparagus-bean
mosaic, bean chlorotic ringspot (4 strains), bean local chlorosis (7 strains),
bean mosaic, bean necrosis, beet ringspot, black legginess, Brazilian tobacco
streak, broad-bean mottle, carnation mosaic, carnation ringspot, clover yellow
mosaic, cucumber mosaic, cucumber necrosis, curly top, euphorbia mosaic, leaf
crinkle, lucerne mosaic, oily-pod, pea enation mosaic, peach ringspot, peach
yellow butt mosaic, pelargonium leaf-curl, pod mottle, potato bouquet,
raspberry leaf-curl, raspberry ringspot, raspberry yellow dwarf, rosette,
Rothamsted tobacco necrosis, southern bean mosaic, stipple streak, subterranean
clover stunt, subterranean clover, summer death, sweet pea streak, tobacco
mosaic, tobacco necrosis, tomato aspermy, tomato black ring, tomato spotted
wilt, tomato streak, top necrosis, white clover mosaic, yellow mosaic, yellow
bean mosaic, yellow-green mosaic, and yellow spot of nasturtium. Several
nematodes infest common beans and may cause problems in certain areas:
Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi, Belonolaimus gracilis, B. longicaudatus,
Criconemella curvata, Ditylenchus dipsaci, Dolichodorus heterocephalus,
Helicotylenchus dihystera, H. pseudorobustus, Hemicycliophora parvana,
Heterodera glycines, H. schachtii, H. trifolii, Longidorus maximus, Meloidogyne
arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita and var. acrita, M. javanica, M.
thamesi, Pratylenchus brachyurus, P. penetrans, P. scribneri, P. vulnus,
Radopholus similes, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Trichodorus christiei,
Tylenchorhynchus claytoni. In India, major insect pests include
Epilachna vigintioctopunctata, one of the worst enemies, and the
flea beetle, Longitarsus belgaumensis, an aphid, Smynthurodes
betae, and the bean fly, Ophiomyia phaseoli. The most serious
insect attacking bean in the eastern US is the Mexican bean beetle
(Epilachna varivestis) (treated with carbaryl, dimethoate, diazinon,
malathion, methoxyclor, and parathion). Other pests include: bean leaf beetle
(Cerotoma trifurcata) (treated with carbaryl, DDT, or rotenone),
seedcorn maggot (Delia platura) bean weevil (Acanthoscelides
obtectus), bean thrips (Caliothrips fasciatus), and bean aphid
(Aphis rumicis). Major Latin American pests are Empoasca (green
leaf hopper) and Diabrotica. In Africa, the bean fly is very important.
According to CIAT (1977), vegetable oils at dosages of only 5 ml/kg seed appear
to control stored insect pests effectively, a safe, cheap method, easily
adaptable to Third World households. CIAT (1978) showed equally good results
with 3 ml soybean oil/kg seed and 1.7 ppm pyrethrins.
Analysing 62 kinds of biomass for heating value, Jenkins and Ebeling (1985)
reported a spread of 17.46 to 16.32 MJ/kg compared to 13.76 for weathered rice
straw to 23.28 MJ/kg for prune pits. On a % DM basis, the straw contained
75.30% volatiles, 5.93% ash, 18.77% fixed carbon, 42.97%C, 5.59% H,
44.93% O, 0.83% N, 0.01% S, 0.13% Cl, and undetermined residue.
Complete list of references for Duke, Handbook of Energy Crops
- Adams, M.W. 1980. Energy inputs in dry bean production, p. 123126, In: D.
Pimentel (ed.), Handbook of energy utilization in agriculture. CRC Press, Boca
- CIAT. 19741978. Bean production program. Annual Reports, 19741977.
- Haidvogl, M., Fritsch, G., Grubauer, H.M. 1979. Poisoning by raw garden beans
(Phaseolus vulgaris and Phaseolus coccineus) in children.
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- Horsfal, J.C., et al. 1972. Genetic vulnerability of major crops, National
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Last update Wednesday, January 7, 1998 by aw