Oryza sativa L.
Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.
- Folk Medicine
- Yields and Economics
- Biotic Factors
- Chemical Analysis of Biomass Fuels
Rice is cultivated primarily for the grain which forms an important part of the
diet in many countries, especially in Asia. Grains are quite nutritious when
not polished. In the US, 60% of domestic rice consumption went into direct
food use, 11% into processed food, and 29% into beer production around 1975
(Rutger, 1981). US per capita consumption is between 3 and 4 kg/yr, up from
2.7 a few years ago (cf >50 kg in portions of Latin America). Common or
starchy types are used in various dishes, cakes, soups, pastries, breakfast
foods, and starch pastes; glutinous types, containing a sugary material instead
of starch, are used in the Orient for special purposes as sweetmeats. Rice
bran contains 1517% oil, and is a source of vitamin B, used as a preventative
and cure of beriberi. Grain is also used to make rice wine, Saki, much
consumed in Japan. Fermented or Sierra rice is consumed in the Andean
highlands and is used exclusively there in the preparation of dry rice. Rice
hulls are sometimes used in the production of purified alpha cellulose and
furfural. Rice straw is used as roofing and packing material, feed,
fertilizer, and fuel.
According to Hartwell (19671971), the seeds are used in folk medicine for
breast cancers, stomach indurations, other tumors, and warts. Reported to be
antidotal, aperitif, astringent, demulcent, diuretic, excipient, larvicidal,
refrigerant, stomachic, tonic, and vermifuge, rice is a folk remedy for
abdominal ailments, beriberi, bowels, burns, diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia,
epistaxis, fever, filariasis, flux, hematemesis, inflammations, jaundice,
nausea, ophthalmia, paralysis, piles, psoriasis, skin ailments, sores,
splenosis, stomach ailments, and swellings (Duke and Wain, 1981). According to
Duke and Ayensu (1984), the flowers are dried as cosmetic and dentifrice in
China, awns are used for jaundice in China. The stem is used for bilious
conditions; ash for discharges and wounds, sapraemia in Malaya; infusion of
straw for dysentery, gout, and rheumatism. The husk is used for dysentery and
considered tonic in China. In China, rice cakes are fried in camel's fat for
hemorrhoids; rice water is used for fluxes and ulcers and applied externally
for gout with pepper in Malaya. Boiled rice is used for carbuncles in Malaya
and poulticed onto purulent tumors in the East Indies. The root is considered
astringent, anhidrotic, and is decocted for anuria. Sprouts are used for poor
appetite, dyspepsia, fullness of abdomen and chest, and weak spleen and stomach
in China. The lye of charred stems (merang, Indonesia) is used as a hair wash
and used internally as an abortifacient. In the Philippine Islands, an extract
(tikitiki), rich in antineuritic B1 vitamin, made of rice polishings, is used
in treatment of infantile beriberi and for malnutrition in adults. In Java,
the vitamins are extracted and supplied as lozenges (Reed, 1976).
The nutritional value of rice and its milling products is shown in Rutgers
Table 3. Brown rice protein contains in g/16g N: 4.6 g isoleucine, 7.9 g
leucine, 3.6 g lysine, 5.1 g phenylalanine, 4.7 g tyrosine, 5.3 g total sulfur
amino acids, 2.8 g methionine, 3.6 g threonine, 1.4 g tryptophane, and 6.4 g
valine (Rutger, 1981). Based on 6884 analyses, Miller (1958) reports that the
straw contains 88.093.4% DM (mean 91.5) and, on a zero moisture basis 2.86.2%
CP (mean 42), 0.72.3% EE (mean 1.4), 27.638.3% CF (mean 35.1), 14.020.1%
ash (mean 16.9), and 36.648.1% NFE (mean 42.4). Han and Anderson's analyses
(1974) are similar, 0.19 mcal/100 g, 4.5% CP, 1.5% EE, 35% CF, 4.5% lignin,
34.0% cellulose, 42.0% NFE, 16.5% ash, 14.0% silica, 0.19% Ca, 1.2% K, 0.4% Mg,
0.10% P, and 0.10% S.
Erect annual grass, to 1.2 m tall; culms angled, smooth, nearly enclosed in
glabrous, strongly-nerved leaf-sheaths; leaf-blades long, flat, 1.2 cm broad,
more or less scabrous; panicle terminal, narrow, curved or nodding to one side,
1530 cm long, with many long, ascending branches; spikelets strongly flattened
sidewise, perfect, ribbed pubescent, awned or awnless; palea with 2 nerves near
margin; kernel free-threshing, oblong, flattened on the sides, with long hilum,
straw-colored or yellow, from 28,000 to 44,000 per kg, depending on the variety
Reported from the China-Japan, Indochina-Indonesia, and Hindustani Centers of
Diversity, rice, or cvs thereof, is reported to tolerate aluminum, disease,
drought, fungi, high pH, laterite, low pH, sodium, nematodes, photoperiod,
slope, smut, virus, weeds, and waterlogging (Duke, 1978). Several thousand cvs
are known, many well studied with genetic maps, disease-resistance and yield
data. Cvs are divided into short-, medium-, and long-grained types. Long
grains have the highest market value. Upland rice is grown without submersion,
usually on terraced hillsides; lowland rice is grown in flooded beds through
much of the growing season. (2n = 24, 48)
Native to the tropics and subtropics of Southeast Asia, rice is now cultivated
in many localities throughout the world with favorable climatic conditions.
More than 90% of the world rice production is in Asia; China and India being
the largest producers (Reed, 1976).
Ranging from Cool Temperate Steppe to Wet through Tropical Very Dry to Wet
Forest Life Zones, rice is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 4.2 to
42.9 dm (mean of 85 cases = 15.2), annual temperature of 8.4 to 27.8°C (mean
of 85 cases = 23.0), and pH of 4.3 to 8.7 (mean of 72 cases = 6.3) (Duke, 1978,
1979). According to Rutger (1981), fertile soils are desired, with pH between
5 and 7.5. Rice is a tropical, subtropical and warm temperate crop,
growing best where summer temperatures of 2425°C prevail and in full sun.
Rice grows as far north in Japan as 42°N and as far south in Queensland as
23°S. On the south side of the Himalayas rice is grown to 2,400 m. Rice
mostly cultured on the humid coastal lowlands and deltas of the world. Growth
arrested below 10°C; rice exhibits little or no frost tolerance.
Temperatures of 0.5 to 5°C are lethal after 24 hours. Aquatic rice may
require a dependable supply of fresh, slowly moving water, at temperature of
2129°C. If rainfall is less than 125 cm annually, irrigation is used to
make up deficit. Rice is said to require the equivalent of 810 dm during its
growing period. Crop is salt tolerant at some stages of growth; during
germination but not seedling stages rice has even been grown to reclaim salty
soils. Terrain should be level enough to permit flooding, yet sloped enough to
drain readily. Soil should be of a fine texture that holds water or should
have a subsoil which holds water with little seepage. Friable loam overlying
heavy clay, as in many coastal and delta areas, is ideal (Reed, 1976).
Although most rice cvs are shortday, there are photosensitive and long day cvs.
Rice should be planted on a smooth seedbed. In United States rice is seeded in
spring at rate of 101123 kg/ha when drilled and 130225 kg/ha when broadcast;
on virgin land, 140145 kg/ha. This will give 80300 plants/m2 0.1
sq. m. Cover seed 3.75 cm, or broadcast in water with airplane. In some
countries (as India, Malaya, Philippines, China, Japan, and Spain), rice is
transplanted into fields when 25 cm high, spaced 1020 cm apart in 2030 cm
rows. Thirty-five laborers can plant 1 ha/day. Plant in very low water and
then increase depth. Transplanting makes better use of limited land areas.
Tipar (Upland) culture is still found in Sumatra, Thailand, Borneo, and the
Philippines. It represents a primitive kind of culture and is of slight
overall importance. Rice is sown 34 cm deep in holes 15 cm apart on hillsides
where no irrigation is possible. Fields are worked as corn fields; crop
rotation is practiced with bananas or sugar cane; yields are small. Continuous
rice culture depletes soil nutrition and lowers yield. Rotations with
soybeans, grain sorghums or small grains, vetch, safflower, field beans,
burclover, horsebeans, bananas, sugarcane, cotton, lespedeza, or corn, have
been used. Nitrogen to 90 kg/ha was found to increase yields; beyond that no
further increase. Potash and phosphorus are used only on the basis of soil
tests. All phosphorus and potassium and some nitrogen should be applied at
time of seeding; the rest of the nitrogen at mid growing season as a
top-dressing. Flood soon afterwards to eliminate weeds. Other fertilizers
which are used; as rice straw, rice ash, stable manure, buffalo dung, green
manure, fish guano, fish meal, natural manure, and human feces (Reed, 1976).
From planting to harvest varies: 4 months in Italy, 6 months in monsoon regions
of Asia, and 135 days for some cvs in the US. In the US, rice is harvested
directly with self-propelled combines and dried artificially before storing or
milling. If rice is cut, swathed and threshed from windrow, the harvesting
should be done when the seed moisture is 12% or less. In unmechanized
societies, the panicles of rice seed are harvested with knives or scythes.
Sheaths are dried in the sun, and threshing is done with horses, in wooden
troughs or with flails.
The world low production yield figure for rice in 1979 was 500 kg/ha in French
Guiana, the international production was 2,615 kg/ha, and the world high
production yield was 7,000 kg/ha in Gabon (FAO, 1980a). Highest experimental
yields of rice exceed 12 MT. Rice straw is usually calculated as about equal
production in dwarf varieties, two times production in conventional varieties.
Rice chaff is figured at 0.25 times production. The highest phytomass figure I
have to date for rice is 40 MT/ha/yr, which assumes 365 days a year of rice
production (Duke, 1982a). Yields vary widely: United States average 4 MT/ha;
India, Indochina, Malaya, Philippines, 11.5 MT/ha; Java, Thailand, Madagascar,
1.52.5 MT/ha; Egypt, Brazil, China, Japan, 2.53.5 MT/ha; Spain, Italy,
3.54.5 MT/ha. CIAT (1978) has reported yields exceeding 10 MT/ha. World
production of rice was 197 million MT, excluding Communist Asia. Producers in
order are: China, Indian Union, Pakistan, Japan, Thailand, Indochina, Java, and
Burma. Ninety-five percent of the world's rice production is in the Orient,
where per capita consumption is 100200 kg annually. From 19701977, US
farmers received 11.37 to 30.35 per quintal (100 kg) of paddy, prices highly
dependent on Asian production. Farm value of the US crop has averaged $1
billion annually for this period (Rutger, 1981). Rice is grown on ca 1 million
ha per year with yields ca 5 MT/ha, more than double the world average yield of
2.4 MT/ha (Rutger and Grant, 1980).
According to the phytomass files (Duke, 1981b), annual productivity ranges up
to 40 MT/ha. Energy output/input ratios for US rice range from 1.03 to 1.76,
compared to 3.36 or higher for developing countries. Energy return per human
labor hour is high in the US, ranging from 1,600,000 to 3,200,000 Btu/hr
compared to 48,00060,000 Btu/hr in the Philippines. Irrigation at 2040% of
total energy input is the largest single production in US rice production
(Rutger, 1981). Rice residues are often viewed for their energy potential.
Rice yields break down as follows: 20% hulls, 10% bran, 3% polishings, 1.17%
broken rice, and 5066% polished rice. Nutritional values of all these can be
found in Gohl (1981). Yoshida (1977, in Ecophysiology of Tropical Crops,
Academic Press) presents data suggesting roughly that where one crop of rice is
grown a year (temperate regions), annual productivity is about 7 MT/ha, but
closer to 11 for two crops, 16 for 3 crops, and 24 for 4 crops (tropical
Philippines). Yields under various configurations are cited by Yoshida. Duke
et al. (1975) give the high energetic value to the rice straw of 400,000,000
BTU/ha, equivalent to ca 67 barrels of oil per hectare. Rice has a relatively
low annual productivity. Highest yields are close to 13 MT paddy/ha in
Australia. The maximum yield reported from Northern Australia is equivalent to
21 MT organic matter/ha/yr. The average for New South Wales is equivalent to
15 MT/ha/yr. Westlake (1963) explained that high figures of 41 MT/ha/yr in the
Belgian Congo reflected the total plant, continuous cultivation, and 4.1
harvests/yr. The actual organic production of one harvest was equivalent to
9.9 MT/ha. It must be remembered that Westlake's figures usually include
below-ground corrections also. Usually, there are two types of rice residue
considered in biomass budgets, the rice straw, usually left in the field or
even burned, and the chaff, usually generating waste disposal problems at the
rice mill. Rice straw is usually estimated at two times yield figures. Han
and Anderson (1974) gave figures indicating that for the nearly 200,000,000 MT
rice paddy produced in 1970 in the world, there were nearly 400,000,000 MT
straw. Studies in Colombia (CIAT, 1978) showed that 42.1% of the dry matter
was containe in the grain in 'IR22', 50% in 'CICA 8'. The ratio of grain for
'CICA 8' was 0.96, for lR22, 0.72. Thus, for the highly derived dwarf
varieties, a harvest ratio of 1:1 grain:straw seems to prevail, but with land
races the ratio is closer to 1:2. NAS (1977a) gives the residue coefficient of
paddy as 0.381.25. (Residue coefficient is the ratio of the weight of DM of
residue to recorded harvested weight at field moisture. Rice chaff is usually
figured at about 1020% of production, but NAS (1977a) states that rice hulls
amount to 2030% of total residue, which would convert to 2060% of production.
I am more comfortable with the 20% conversion factor (Duke, 1982a). The
harvest index (HI) of cereals in general is ca 0.36, meaning that 64% of total
above ground crop production is residues at least 1/3 of which should be left
in the field. The HI of 'Prior' barley ranged from 0.48 to 0.41 with
increasing N fertilizer levels. Wheat HI usually runs ca 0.30 to 0.35. Rice
often has a high HI, while grain sorghum generally has a low HI. The "Green
Revolution" cereals with short straw and high grain yields have relatively high
HI. The estimated cost of ethanol and reethanol from cereal grains is $0.35
and $0.16 per liter; the overall energy efficiency, i.e. the ratio of the
energy value of the gross liquid fuel output to the total energy inputs
including feedstocks is 0.34 for ethanol and 0.40 for reethanol. For each ton
of ethanol produced from distiller's residue, valued in the US as animal feed
(Stewart et al, 1979). Han and Anderson (1974) show data suggesting that the
straw to grain ratio is 1:2, for each kg grain there should be 2 kg straw.
They cite Asian production of rice at ca 175 million MT, straw at ca 350
million MT in 1970. US rice production is highly mechanized, with ca 20
man-hours labor/ha compared to ca 800 man-hours in LDC'S. The energy return is
400,000800,000 kcal/hr in the US, ca 12,00015,000 kcal/hr in the Philippines.
Under the LDC conditions energy output/input ratios are quite high, perhaps
317. In the US, the ratios reported by Rutger and Grant run closer to 1, rice
being an energy intensive crop in the US, highly mechanized, fertilized, and
irrigated. For example, Arkansas rice yields of 4,742 kg/ha, energetically
equivalent to ca 14,000,000 kcal/ha required ca 12,500,000 kcal/ha for
production, roughly 700,000 for machinery, 900,000 for gasoline, 2,300,000 for
diesel, 85,000 for electricity, 2,000,000 for N, 50,000 for K2O, 20,000 for Zn,
450,000 for propanil, 290,000 for molinate, 110,000 for 2,4,5T, 95,000 for
insecticide, 625,000 for seed, 3,800,000 for irrigation, 1,000,000 for drying,
110,000 for transportation. Rutger and Grant (1980) give more details for
Louisiana yields of 4,114 kg/ha, Mississippi delta yields of 4,484, and Texas
Gulf Coast yields of 5,235 kg/ha (output/input ratio only 1.17).
Rice is self-pollinating with some cross-pollination. Rice is attacked by a
great number of fungal diseases, especially since it is grown in wet or very
humid conditions, near very wet soil. Some of the fungi include: Achlya
americana, A. flagellata, A. prolifera, Acrocylindrium oryzae, Alternaria
oryzae, A. tenuis, Ascochtya leptospora, A. oryzae, Aspergillus niger, A.
oryzae, A. tamarii, Balansia oryzae, Brachysporium oryzae, Cephalosporium
oryzae, Cercospora oryzae, Chaetomium bostrychodes, C. brasiliensis, C.
indicum, Chaetophoma oryzae, Cladosporium herbarum, C. miyakei, C.
spaerospermum, Cochliobolus heterostrophus, C. miyabeanus, C. stenophilus,
Coniothyrium oryzae, Corticium centrifugum, C. sasakii, C. solani, Curvularia
affinis, C. fallax, C. geniculata, C. inaequalis, C. lunata, C. pallenscens, C.
penniseti, C. spicifera, C. tuberculata, C. verruculosa, Dactylaria oryzae,
Dinemasporium oryzae, Diplodiella oryzae, Ectostroma oryzae, Entyloma oryzae,
Ephelis oryzae, E. pallida, Epicoccum hyalodes, E. neglectum, Fusarium
annulatum, F. arthrosporioides, F. decemcellulare, F. equiseti, F. fujikuroi,
F. graminearum, F. heterosporum, F. kuhnii, F. moniliforme, F. reticulatum, F.
scirpi, F. semitectum, Geotrichum candidum, Gibberella fujikuroi,G.
moniliformis, G. saubinetti, G. zeae, Graphium stilboideum, Haplographium
chlorocephalum, Helicoceras nymphaerum, H. oryzae, Helminthosporium avenae, H.
hawaiiense, H. oryzae, H. rostratum, H. sigmoideum, H. tetramerum, H. turcicum,
Hendersonia oryzae, Heterosporium avenae, H. echinulatum, Hypochnus
centrifugus, H. sasakii, Koorchaloma madreeya, K. lomella var. oryzae,
Leptosphaeria culmicola, L. culmifraga, L. iwamotii, L. michotii, L. oryzina,
L. salvinii, Linocarpon cariglumarum, Melanospora zamiae, Metasphaeria
albescens, M. cattanei, M. oryzae, M. oryzae-sativae,
Microspire dasulfuricans, Monascus purpureus, Mucor varians, Mycosphaerella
danubialis, M. malinverniana, M. oryzae, M. shimadae,
M. shirsiana, M. tulasnei, Myrothecium indicum, M. oryzae,
M. striatisporum, M. verrucaria, Nectria bolbophyllii, N.
zeae, Neovassia barclayana, N. horrida, Nigrospora oidium, N.
oryzae,,N. padwickii, N. sphaerica, Ophiobolus graminis,
O. herpotrichus, O. miyabeanus, O. oryzae, O.
oryzinus, Pellicularia sasakii, Penicillium citreoviride, P.
vermiculatum, Periconia byssoides, P. digitata, P.
minutissima, P. pulla, Pestalotiopsis disseminata, Pestalozzia
oryzae, Phaeoseptoria oryzae, Phaeosphaeria oryzae, Phitomyces chartarum, Phoma
glumarum, P. glumicola., P. necatrix, P. oryzae,
Phyllosticta glumarum, P. japonica, P. miurai, P. oryzae,
P. oryzina, Phytophthora macrospora, Piptocephalis cylindrospora,
Pleosphaerulina oryzae, Pleospora herbarum, Protoascus colorans, Pyricularia
grisea, P. oryzae, Puccinia graminis, Pyrenochaeta nipponica, P.
oryzae, Pythium aphanidermatium, P. arrhenomanes, P.
debaryanum, P. dissotocum, P. echinocarpum, P. gracile,
P. graminicola, P. hemmianum, P. monospermum, P.
nagaii, P. oryzae, P. rostratum, P. ultimum, Ramularia
oryzae, Rhizoctonia batataicola, R. microsclerotia, R. oryzae,
R. solani, Rhizopus nigricans, Rhynchosporium oryzae, Saprolegnia
diclina, Sclerophthora macrospora, S. oryzae, Sclerotinia oryzae-sativae, S.
sclerotiorum, Sclerotium funigatum, S. hydrophilum, S. oryzae, S.
oryzae-sativae, S. rolfsii, S. sphaeroides, Septoria oryzae, S. poae,
Spegazzinia tessatthra, Sphaeronema oryzae, Sphaeropsis oryzae, S. vaginarum,
Sphaerulina oryzina, Sporidesmium bakeri, Sporotrichum angulatum, Stagonospora
oryzae, Stauronema sacchari, Syncephalastrium racemosum, Syncephalis cornus,
Teichosporella oryzae, Thielavia angulata, Tilletia horrida, Trematosphaerella
oryzae, Trichoconia caudata, T, indica, T. padwicki, Trichoderma viride,
Trichonis padwicki, Trichothecium roseum, Ustilaginoidea oryzae, U. virens,
Ustilago avenae, Vermicularia oryzae. Rice is also attacked by the algal
weed Chara, and by the parasitic flowering plants of Striga asiatica,
S. euphrasioides, S. hermonthica, S. lutea, and S. senegalensis.
Following bacteria have been isolated from rice: Bacillus prodigiosus,
Bacterium oryzae, Pseudomonas oryzae, Xanthomonas itoana, X. oryzae, X.
oryzicola, X. translucens. Several virus infections cause serious damage
to rice: Hoia blanca (very serious), Leaf-gall virus, Stripe virus, Tungro
virus, Yellow dwarf virus. Also, since rice grows in wet soil, it is afflicted
with a great many nematodes. The following is a world list: Aphelenchoides
besseyi, A. bicaudatus, A. parietinus, A. oryzae, Boleodoroides oryzae,
Chronogaster typicus, Criconemella onoensis, C. curvata, C. rustica,
Ditylenchus angustus, D. intermedius, Dorylaimellus virginianus, Dolichodorus
sp., Galophinema lenorum, Helicotylenchus cavenessi, H. multicinctus, H.
nannus, H. pesudorobustus, H. retusus, Hemicriconemoides cocophillus,
Hemicycliophora paradoxa, Heterodera elachista, H. oryzicola, H. oryzae, H.
schachtii, Hirschmanniella nana, H. oryzae, H. spinicaudata, Hoplalaimus
galeatus, Lenochium oryzae, Meloidogyne exigua, M. arenaria, M. graminicola, M.
incognita, M. incognita acrita, M. javanica, Paralongidorus beryllus,
Paraphelenchus pseudoparietinus, Peltamigratus nigeriensis, Pratylenchus
brachyurus, P. coffeae, P. goodevi, P. neglectus, P. penetrans, P. pratensis,
P. thornei, P. zeae, Psilenchus hilarulus, Pterygorhabditis pakistanensis,
Radopholus lavaberi, R. mucronatus, R. oryzae, Scutellonema clathricaudatum,
Tylenchorhynchus annulatus, T. clavicaudatus, T. elegans, Xiphinema campinense,
X. ifacola, X. indicum, X. parasetariae. The major seed-borne fungal
diseases are Black smut or bunt (Neovossia horrida), False or green smut
(Ustilaginoides virens), Minute leaf and foot rot (Nigrospora),
scab (Gibberella zeae), and Bakanie disease and foot rot (G.
fujikuroi). The insects which are known to be pests to rice are: Acrida
turrita, Acrotylus insubricus, Chilo suppressalis, Cofana spectra,
Cyrtacanthacris tatarica, Diacrysia obliqua, Dicladispa armigera, Echinocnemus
oryzae, Hydrelia griseola (Rice leaf miner), Locusta migratoria,
Macrosiphum avenae (M. granarium), Nizaga simplex, Nymphula depunctalis, Oxya
velox, Pelopidas mathias, P. thrax, Pseudauletes sp., Rhopalosiphum
rufiabdominalis mauritia, Trigonotylus ruficornis, and Tryporyza
incertulas. Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) attacks seed in
storage. IRRI reports that "natural enemies control most rice insect pests.
For every 200 eggs a brown planthopper lays in a field of susceptible rice
variety, only five hoppers survive to reproduce as adults. For green
leafhoppers, only eight reach adulthood. Predators, parasites, and pathogens
normally kill 9599% of the potential hoppersin the absence of insecticides."
(IRRI reporter 1/82 Mar 1982). Martinez and Catling (1980) identified 7
N-fixing algae on leaves and/or nodal roots or Oryza glaberrima in water
1.6 m deep; Anabaena torulosa, A. vaginicola, Cylindrospermum licheniforme,
Gloeocapsa quaternata, Gloeotrichia natans, Hapalosiphon stuhlmanii, and
Analysing 62 kinds of biomass for heating value, Jenkins and Ebeling (1985)
reported a spread of 16.14 to 15.27MJ/kg, compared to 13.76 for weathered rice
straw to 23.28 MJ/kg for prune pits. On a % DM basis, the hulls
contained 65.47% volatiles, 17.86 % ash, 16.67% fixed carbon, 40.96% C, 4.30%
H, 35.86% O, 0.40% N, 0.02% S, 0.12% Cl, and undetermined residue.
Analysing 62 kinds of biomass for heating value, Jenkins and Ebeling (1985)
reported a spread of 14.56 to 13.76 MJ/kg, compared to 13.76 for weathered rice
straw to 23.28 MJ/kg for prune pits. On a % DM basis, the straw
(weathered) contain 62.31% volatiles, 24.36% ash, 13.33% fixed carbon,
34.60% C, 3.93% H, 35.38% O, 0.93% N, 0.16% S, and undetermined residue.
Analysing 62 kinds of biomass for heating value, Jenkins and Ebeling (1985)
reported a spread of 16.28 to 15.34 MJ/kg, compared to 13.76 for weathered rice
straw to 23.28 MJ/kg for prune pits. On a % DM basis, the straw (fall),
contained 69.33% volatiles, 13.42% ash, 17.25% fixed carbon, 41.78% C, 4.63% H,
36.57% O, 0.70% N, 0.08% S, 0.34% Cl, and undetermined residue.
Complete list of references for Duke, Handbook of Energy Crops
- CIAT. 1978, Rice unit. 1977 Report. CIAT 02EIB-77.
- Duke, J.A. 1978. The quest for tolerant germplasm. p. 161. In: ASA Special
Symposium 32, Crop tolerance to suboptimal land conditions. Am. Soc. Agron.
- Duke, J.A. 1979. Ecosystematic data on economic plants. Quart. J. Crude Drug
- Duke, J.A. 1981b. The gene revolution. Paper 1. p. 89150. In: Office of
Technology Assessment, Background papers for innovative biological technologies
for lesser developed countries. USGPO. Washington.
- Duke, J.A. 1982a. Plant germplasm resources for breeding of crops adapted to
marginal environments. chap. 12. In: Christiansen, M.N. and Lewis, C.F. (eds.),
Breeding plants for less favorable environments. Wiley-Interscience, John Wiley
& Sons. New York.
- Duke, J.A. and Ayensu, E.S. 1985. Medicinal plants of China. Reference
Publications, Inc. Algonac, MI.
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